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Evils of internet essay

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Major application areas included Configuration Management, Data Management, Manufacturing Engineering, and Quality Product Records. Evils Of Internet Essay. Interfaced with other software packages including Project/2 Schedule Manager and DI-3000 Graphics Package. Designed and essay implemented standards for UNIX-based ORACLE systems. Trained ORACLE Developers and End Users. · Served as a Combat Systems Analyst in Mission Analysis for 3 years at a major defense contractor. Conducted computer-assisted analysis on various weapon systems in all areas of modern combat. This includes scenario development through result presentation. Code work included writing, modifying, debugging, documenting, and evils essay training new individuals on thesis statement essay, large-scale computer models, in Fortran, Pascal, C and Basic. · While serving as a Lieutenant in United States Naval Reserve, served as the Administration Officer, responsible for the administrative needs of a unit of 130 men, leading a division of 24 men. As the Executive Officer for a reserve unit, was responsible for evils essay training, administration, leadership and management of statement summary 35 men from 10 different specialty areas. Of Internet Essay. As the Officer/Enlisted Training Coordinator, organized and tracked the summary, training for 14 officers and 22 enlisted men. Of Internet Essay. While on Active Duty, held various assignments including Asst. Operations Officer, Combat Information Center Officer and Deck Officer.

Linux Redhat , UNIX IBM RS/6000 AIX 5.2, HP-UX, SuSe 7 SLES, Sun Solaris, Compaq Tru64, D EC UNIX/VMS, Windows 2000. Oracle Applications versions 9.4.2 through 12.1.1, Oracle Database v5/6/7/8/8i/9i/10gR2,, SQL*Forms, SQL*PLUS, PL/SQL, SQR, ORACLE*Reportwriter, PVCS, PMCS, Oracle FailSafe, SQL Backtrack, RMAN, OEM, UNIX shell scripts, SQLNet, MKS Toolkit. Essay. B.A., Mathematics ; University of Texas; Austin, TX. Graduate work in Computer Science. Certified Computer Professional Specializing in evils of internet Business Information Systems and Data Resource Management.

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Essay: Sun and evils of internet essay Maximum Power Point Tracking in Solar Array Systems Using Fuzzy Controllers. Abstract: Solar energy is viewed as clean and renewable source of energy for the future. 12 Angry Men. So the use of evils of internet essay Photovoltaic systems has increased in many applications. That need to improve the materials and methods used to harness this power source. There are two major approaches; sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. These two methods need efficient controllers.

The controller may be conventional or intelligent such as Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). FLCs have the advantage to be relatively simple to design as they do not require the knowledge of the exact model and work well for nonlinear system. The proposed sun tracking controller and maximum power point tracking is tested using Matlab/ Simulink program. Keywords: photovoltaic; maximum power point tracking; buck converter; incremental inductance. Renewable energy sources play an important role in electric power generation. There are various renewable sources which used for statement summary electric power generation, such as solar energy,wind energy, geothermal etc. Of Internet. Solar Energy is a good choice for electric power generation,since the machine gun history essay, solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy by solar photovoltaic modules. These modules are made up of of internet essay silicon cells. When many such cells are connected in series we get a solar PV module. The current rating of the modules increases when the area of the individual cells is increased, and vice versa.

When many such PV modules are connectedin series and parallel combinations we get a solar PV arrays, that suitable for obtaining higher power output. The applications for solar energy are increased, and 12 angry men that need to improve the materials and methods used to evils of internet essay, harness this power source. Main factors that affect the efficiency of the collection process are solar cell efficiency, intensity of gun history source radiation and storage techniques. The efficiency of evils of internet a solar cell is limited by 12 angry men, materials used in solar cell manufacturing. It is particularly difficult to make considerable improvements in the performance of the cell, and hence restricts the efficiency of the of internet, overall collection process. Therefore, the increase of the intensity of radiation received from the on computer, sun is the most attainable method of improving the performance of solar power. There. are three major approaches for maximizing power extraction in solar systems. They are sun tracking, maximum power point[1],[2] (MPP) tracking or both.

These methods needs controllers, may be intelligent such as fuzzy logic controller or conventional controller such as PID controller. The advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that it does not strictly need any mathematical model of the plant. It is based on plant operator experience, and it is very easy to apply. Hence, many complex systems can be controlled without knowing the exact mathematical model of the plant. In addition, fuzzy logic simplifies dealing with nonlinearities in systems. The nice thing about fuzzy logic control is that the linguistic system definition becomes the Control algorithm. The major things that have to be considered in development of sun and MPPT tracker are designing of PV module, DC to DC buck converter, MPPT algorithm and evils essay sun tracker.

The PV module characteristic is a non linear characteristic which depends on the reverse saturation current of the diode in 12 angry men, parallel to evils of internet, the photo current source. The photon current is ski jumping, produced because of the photovoltaic action [3],[4]. The equivalent circuit of a PV cell is as depicted in Figure 1. Of Internet Essay. The current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. Statement. The series and shunt resistances are represented as Rs and Rsh. The PV cells are grouped in larger units called PV modules which are further interconnected in a parallel-series configuration to form PV arraysThe current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. Evils Of Internet. Rsh and Rs are the intrinsic shunt and 12 angry men series resistances of the cell, respectively.

Usually the value of Rsh is very large and that of Rs is evils, very small, hence they may be neglected to simplify the analysis. The PV cells are grouped in gun history, larger units called PV modules which are further interconnected in a parallel-series configuration to form PV arrays. Fig 1. PV Cell Modelled as Diode Circuit. The photovoltaic panel can be modeled mathematically as given in evils of internet, equations (1) – (4) Where ‘ I’_ph is the photocurrent in (A) which is the light-generated current at the nominal condition (25’ and 12 angry men 1000W/m2), Ki is the short-circuit current/temperature coefficient ‘ I’_scr at (0.0017A/K), T is the actual temperature in K, ?? is the irradiation on the device surface, and 1000W/m2 is the nominal irradiation. Modules reverse saturation current’ I’_rs: The module saturation current I_Ovaries with the cell temperature, which is essay, given by:

Where I_O is the diode saturation current (A). The basic equation that describes the current output of the thesis statement summary, photovoltaic (PV) module I_PV of the single-diode model is as given in equation. Where K is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 x ’10’^(-23) JK^(-1)), q is the electronic charge (1.602 x ’10’^(-19)C), T is the cell temperature (K); A is the diode ideality factor, Rs the series resistance (??). Essay. Ns is the number of cells connected in series. Np is the number of cells connected in parallel, V_PV=V_oc.These reference values are generally provided by critical on sister, manufacturers of PV modules for evils of internet essay specified operating condition such as STC (Standard Test Conditions) for which the irradiance is 1000 W/m2 and the cell temperature is 25’. The panel specifications are used to design the simulink module of the required panel. The major factors are the open circuit voltage and 12 angry men the short circuit current.

B. DC TO DC CONVERTER: A buck converter [5],[6]is a step-down DC to of internet, DC converter. The operation of the physics coursework ski jumping, buck converter is fairly simple, with an inductor and two switches (transistor and diode) that control the evils of internet essay, current of the abigail williams, inductor as shown in Figure. Fig 2. DC to DC to buck converter. It alternates between connecting the inductor to source voltage to store energy in the inductor when the PWM signal is high and discharging the evils, inductor into the load when the williams essay, PWM signal is evils of internet, low. Williams. When the duty cycle is in ON state, The diode become as reversed biased and the inductor will deliver current and switch conducts inductor current. Evils. The current through the inductor increase, as the source voltage would be greater. The energy stored in inductor increased when the current increase, and the inductor acquires energy. Coursework. Capacitor will provides smooth out of inductor current changes into a stable voltage at output voltage. When the essay, duty cycle is in OFF state, The diode is ON and the inductor will maintains current to load. Because of inductive energy storage, inductor current will continues to flow.

While inductor releases current storage, it will flow to the load and provides voltage to the circuit. 12 Angry Men. The diode is forward biased. The current flow through the of internet essay, diode which is inductor voltage is equal with negative output voltage. C)FUZZY logic controller: Fuzzy Logic is ski jumping, a control system methodology designed for solving problems. implemented in a widely range of systems such as: simple and small devices, microcontrollers or, on the other hand, large systems joined to of internet, networks, workstations or normal control systems. It may be developed in hardware, software, or both in combination. Fuzzy logic extends conventional Boolean logic to thesis, handle the concept of the partial truth the values falling between ‘totally true’ and ‘totally false’. These values are dealt with using degree of evils of internet membership of an machine element to a set. The degree of essay membership can take any real value in the interval [0, 1].

Fuzzy logic makes it possible to imitate the behavior of human logic, which tends to work with ‘fuzzy’ concepts of truth. Fuzzy Logic shows a usual rule-based IF condition AND condition THEN action. It. approaches to a solving control problem rather than intending to model a system based on math’s. The Fuzzy Logic model is based on empiric experience, relying on a number of samples rather than some technical understanding of the problem to be solved. The basic parts of every fuzzy controller are displayed in gun history, the following Figure .The fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is composed of evils of internet essay a fuzzification interface, knowledge base, inference engine, and defuzzification. The fuzzifier maps the input crisp numbers into the fuzzy sets to obtain degrees of membership. It is needed in order to activate rules, which are in terms of the linguistic variables. The inference engine of the FLC maps the antecedent fuzzy (IF part) sets into consequent fuzzy sets (THEN part). This engine handles the essay skills, way in which the rules are combined. The defuzzifier maps output fuzzy sets into a crisp number, which becomes the output of the FLC.

Fig 3: Fuzzy Logic Controller. Solar tracking system uses a stepper motor as the drive source to rotate the solar panel. The position of the evils, sun is determined by on sister, using a tracking sensor, the evils of internet essay, sensor reading is converted from analog to digital signal, then it passed to a fuzzy logic controller. The controller output is connected to the driver of the physics, stepper motor to rotate PV panel in of internet, one axis until it faces the sun[9]-[13]. FLC has two inputs which are: error and the change in error, and one output feeding to williams essay, the stepper motor driver. The phasor plot in of internet essay, Figure 5.11 explained a method used in reaching the desired degree value at the equilibrium point to satisfy the stability in the system. For example, at stage A the error is 12 angry men, positive (desired degree ‘actual degree) and the change error (error ‘ last error) is negative which means that the response is going in the right direction; hence, the FLC will go forward in this direction. Using the same criteria at stage B, the error is negative and of internet essay CE is bigger negative; hence, the response is going in wrong direction so FLC will change its direction to enter Stage C, until reaching the williams essay, desired degree.

Fig 4: FLC working phenomenon. E) MPPT fuzzy logic controller. The FLC examines the evils of internet essay, output PV power at each sample (time_k), and coursework determines the evils of internet essay, change in power relative to voltage (dp/dv). Summary Essay. If this value is greater than zero the controller change the duty cycle of the pulse width modulation (PWM) to increase the voltage until the power is maximum or the value (dp/dv)=0, if this value less than zero the controller changes the duty cycle of the PWM to evils, decrease the voltage until the 12 angry men, power is evils of internet essay, maximum as shown in Figure 5: Fig 5: V-I graph for a Photo voltaic module. FLC has two inputs which are: error and the change in error, and one output feeding to the pulse width modulation to control the DC-to-DC converter [7]-[9]. The two FLC input variables error E and change of 12 angry men error CE at sampled times k defined by: Change _Error (k ) ”Error (k ) ‘Error (k ‘1) where P(k ) is the instant power of the photovoltaic generator. The input error (k) shows if the load operation point at the instant k is located on the left or on the right of the evils, maximum power point on the PV characteristic, while the input CE (k) expresses the moving direction of this point. The fuzzy inference is carried out by thesis summary essay, using Mamdani method, FLC for the Maximum power point tracker.

III SIMULATION AND RESULTS: A: SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM. Figure 6 the Simulink block diagram for the Fuzzy controller for sun tracker system. The controller has been tested using Simulink motor module in MATLAB, by applying the step input and initial degree of the rotor is -10 degree. The output step response is shown in Figures 5.17. The range from -10 to 0 degree takes 5 steps since each step in our motor is 1.8 degree, so (10/1.8)= 5 stepsThe fuzzy logic in the above block diagram shows the diagram consisting of error and change of error as input and output. Essay. The membership functions of input and output are shown in the below diagram. Fig 7(a),(b),(c) input and output membership functions for sun tracking FLC.

fig 8: stepper motor angle rotation for 12 angry men tracking system. Fig 9: zoom for one motor step. B: SOLAR MPPT SYSTEM: Fig 10: controlling PV power using FLC. Fig 11: generating error and change in evils of internet, error. Fig 12(a),(b) ,(c) input and output membership functions of physics ski jumping MPPT FLC. Table 1. Fuzzy Rules Base.


PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB. Fig 13: Fuzzy MPPT Versus PO MPPT power. In this thesis, fuzzy logic controller FLC was designed to maximizing the energy received from of internet essay solar cells by two methods. The first method is by implementing a sun tracker controlled by fuzzy logic controller to coursework, keep the PV panel pointing toward the sun by using a stepper motor. The use of stepper motor enables accurate tracking of the sun This controller has been tested using Matlab/Simulink program.

The other proposed method is by essay, implementing a maximum power point tracker controlled by fuzzy logic controller and using buck DC-to-DC converter to keep the critical essays, PV output power at evils of internet essay the maximum point all the time. This controller was tested using Matlab/Simulink program, and the results was compared with a perturbation and observation controller applied on the same system. The comparison show that the fuzzy logic controller was better in response and don’t depend on knowing any parameter of PV panel. [1] Esram, T.; Chapman ,PL., ‘Comparison of physics photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques,’ Energy Conversion ,IEEE Transactions on , vol.22, pp.439,49,2007. [2] Ali Reza Reisi.; Mohammad Hassan Moradi.; Shahriar Jamasb., ‘Classification and comparison of evils maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic system: A review,’ Renewable and physics coursework Sustainable Energy Reviews , vol.19, pp.433,443,2013.

[3] Salmi T.; Bouzguenda M.; Gastli A.; Ahmed Masmoudi., ‘MATLAB/Simulink based modelling of solar photovoltaic cell,’ International Journal of of internet essay Renewable Energy Research ,vol.2,no.2, 2012. [4] K. Kurokawa, S. Wakamatsu, Photovoltaic system design guidebook, Ohmsha, Ltd., ISBN 4-274- 94065-9, 1994. [5] Timothy L. Skvarenina, ‘The Power Electronics Handbook, Industrial electronics series’, CRC Press, 2002. [6] Ortiz-Rivera, E.I., ‘Maximum power point tracking using the on sister carrie, optimal duty ratio for evils essay DC-DC converters and Load matching in critical on sister, photovoltaic application,’ Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2008. APEC 2008. Twenty-Third Annual IEEE , May 2008, pp. Evils. 987 – 991. [7] Amrouche.; Belhamel ,M.; Guessoum ,A., ‘Artificial Intelligence Based PO MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Systems’ Revue des Energies Renouvelables (ICRESD’07), pp.11,16,2007. [8] Femia ,N.; Petrone ,G.; G. Summary Essay. Spagnolo .; M. Evils Of Internet Essay. Vitelli ., ‘Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Method,’ Power Electronics ,IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, pp. 963 ‘ 973, July 2005.

[9] Mahdi ,A.J.; Tang ,W.H.;Wu , Q.H., ‘Improvement of A MPPT Algorithm for PV Systems and Its Experimental Validation’ International conference on renewable energies and power quality (ICREPQ’10) ,2010. [10] Algazar ,M.M.; AL-monier H.; El Kotb Salem ,M.E., ‘Maximum power point tracking using fuzzy logic control,’ Electrical power and machine gun history essay energy systems , vol.39, pp. 21,28, 2012. [11] Daniel,A., Pritchard,D. (Aug1983). Evils. Sun Tracking by Peak Power Positioning for Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays, IEEE Transactions on Control System, Volume 3, Issue3,Page(s):2-8. [12] Konar,A. Mandal,A. Microprocessor based Sun Tracker, IEEE Proceedings-A, Vol.138, No.4, Page(s):237-241.

[13] Huang,F. Tien,D. and Or,J. (Dec. 1998). A microcontroller based automatic sun tracker combined with a new solar energy conversion unit, IEEE Proceedings on Power Electronic Drives and 12 angry men Energy Systems for Industrial Growth, Volume 1, 1-3, Page(s):488 – 492 . [14] Sungur,C. (2007) Sun ‘Tracking System with PLC Control for Photo-Voltaic Panels, International Journal of Green Energy, Vol.4, Page(s): 635’643. [15] Saxena,A. Dutta,V. (July 1991).

A Versatile Microprocessor based Controller for Solar Tracking, IEEE Conference, Vol. 2, 21 ‘ 25May, 1990, Page(s):1105-1109. [16] Khalil,A. Evils Of Internet. El-Singaby,M. (2003). Statement Summary Essay. Position control of sun tracking system Circuits and Systems, Proceedings of the of internet essay, 46th IEEE International Midwest Symposium,Vol. Essay. 3, December 27-30, , pp. 1134 ‘ 1137. [17] Wai,R. Wang,W. Jun-You,M. (Nov.

2006). Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Generation System with Adaptive Step-Perturbation Method and evils of internet essay Active Sun Tracking Scheme, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Page(s):224 ‘ 228. [18] Lee, C. Essay. C., Fuzzy-logic in control-systems: Fuzzy logic controller., Part I. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, vol.20,no.2, pp.404-418, 1990. [19] E H Mamdani, ‘Application of Fuzzy algorithms for the control of a dynamic plant’ IEEE vol. 121, pp. Of Internet. 1585-1588, 1974. [20] Wang Li-Xin .; Mendel Jerry M. Generating fuzzy rules by 12 angry men, learning from examples.IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 1992;22(6):1414e27. Search our thousands of essays:

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MSt in General Linguistics and Comparative Philology. The MSt in General Linguistics and Comparative Philology is a nine-month taught course offering a range of options for those seeking a graduate qualification in language studies and wishing to specialise in general linguistics (including phonetics but not applied linguistics), in historical and comparative linguistics, or in the linguistics of a specific language. In addition to a compulsory paper in linguistic theory, you will specialise in general linguistics (B), or in of internet, the linguistics of abigail one or two selected languages (D). Occasionally, you may specialise in Indo-European historical and comparative philology and linguistics (C). Evils Of Internet! However, option C is not usually feasibly in the MSt unless you have an exceptional level of 12 angry men prior background in of internet, this area. There is scope for some work in historical and comparative linguistics in the MSt via the module in Historical and Comparative Linguistics under option B, and via options in machine, the history and evils structure of specific languages.

However, if you would like to specialise fully in Indo-European comparative philology via option C, you are strongly encouraged to apply for the MPhil in General Linguistics and 12 angry men Comparative Philology instead. Two exam papers are chosen from the following range: Phonetics and evils of internet Phonology Syntax Semantics Historical and Comparative Linguistics Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics History and Structure of a Language Sociolinguistics. You may also ask for one option in another subject in general linguistics; approval will be subject to the availability of proper instruction and provision for examination. There is an Option B paper, Experimental Phonetics, which is not normally available to MSt students unless you have some prior training in that subject sufficient to begin work on this option from your first term on critical essays on sister, the course. You select two ancient Indo-European languages or language groups (eg Greek, Italic, Celtic, Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, Slavic etc). You will choose two of the following three subjects, which are assessed via examination papers: (i) the comparative grammar of the evils of internet essay two languages or language groups; (ii) the historical grammar of the two languages or language groups; and summary (iii) set texts for linguistic commentary in the two languages or language groups. You may select either ancient (eg Latin, Sanskrit, Akkadian) or modern languages (eg French, Italian, German, Japanese, Slavic languages). You will choose two of the following three subjects, which are assessed via examination papers: (i) the history of one language, or of two historically related languages; (ii) the structure of the language or languages chosen; and (iiia) translation from, and/or linguistic comment on, texts in the language or languages chosen, or (iiib) a project on an aspect of the evils of internet structure or history of the essay language, or family of related languages, studied.

Subject (iii) may be replaced with any of the modules listed under option B, except for the history and structure of evils essay a language. One module from essay on computer, option B or D (or C, where this is taken) may be replaced by evils of internet a thesis of 10,000 words. Some MSt students proceed to doctoral work at Oxford, although the MPhil is normally the faculty's preferred route to a DPhil; others continue academic study at other institutions. Other career destinations include publishing, secondary and further education, finance, and IT. The University will seek to machine gun history, deliver this course in accordance with the description set out in this course page. However, there may be situations in which it is desirable or necessary for the University to make changes in course provision, either before or after registration. For further information, please see our page on changes to courses. Entry requirements for entry in 2018-19. Within equal opportunities principles and legislation, applications will be assessed in the light of an applicant’s ability to meet the evils following entry requirements: Proven and potential academic excellence. Applicants are normally expected to be predicted or have achieved a first-class or strong upper second-class undergraduate degree with honours (or equivalent international qualifications), as a minimum, in a relevant subject, for example in modern languages, Classics, computer science, philosophy or mathematics.

While some applicants may have a background in linguistics or philology, few will have taken a full undergraduate course in these subjects. The backgrounds of entering students vary considerably, and the MSt curriculum is machine, designed to bring every student to of internet essay, a general understanding of critical essays carrie linguistic research, as well as encouraging students to pursue fields of special interest. For applicants with a degree from the USA, the minimum GPA sought is 3.5 out of of internet essay 4.0. However, entrance is very competitive and most successful applicants have a first-class degree or the equivalent. If you hold non-UK qualifications and wish to machine gun history essay, check how your qualifications match these requirements, you can contact the National Recognition Information Centre for the United Kingdom (UK NARIC). Some modules require background knowledge that is difficult to acquire in a single year, and MSt students are advised to choose these modules only if they already have substantial previous training in relevant background subjects, such as experimental phonetics. In order to take options in the history and structure of a particular language, students will need to have a good grasp of the relevant language itself, even if they are new to linguistic study of the language. Option C is normally not feasible in the MSt.

No Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or GMAT scores are sought. Other appropriate indicators will include: You will be required to supply supporting documents with your application, including references and an official transcript. See 'How to evils of internet essay, apply' for instructions on the documents you will need and how these will be assessed. Interviews are not normally held as part of the admissions process. Applicants are not expected to have publications already, but if they happen to ski jumping, have publications in evils, a relevant area they are encouraged to submit them as their written work. Other qualifications, evidence of excellence and relevant experience.

In the case of mature students/intended career changes professional experience in cognate areas may compensate for shortcomings in the formal academic record. Applicants whose first language is thesis statement summary essay, not English are usually required to provide evidence of proficiency in English at the higher level required by the University. 3. Availability of supervision, teaching, facilities and places. The following factors will govern whether candidates can be offered places: The ability of the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics to provide the appropriate supervision, research opportunities, teaching and facilities for your chosen area of work. Minimum and maximum limits to the numbers of students who may be admitted to Oxford's research and evils of internet essay taught programmes.

The provision of supervision, where required, is machine gun history, subject to the following points: The allocation of graduate supervision is the evils of internet essay responsibility of the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics and it is not always possible to accommodate the essay preferences of incoming graduate students to work with a particular member of staff. Under exceptional circumstances a supervisor may be found outside the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and of internet essay Phonetics. Where possible your academic supervisor will not change for essay, the duration of your course. Evils! However, it may be necessary to assign a new academic supervisor during the course of physics study or before registration for reasons which might include sabbatical leave, maternity leave or change in employment. 4. Disability, health conditions and specific learning difficulties. Students are selected for admission without regard to gender, marital or civil partnership status, disability, race, nationality, ethnic origin, religion or belief, sexual orientation, age or social background. Decisions on admission are based solely on the individual academic merits of each candidate and the application of the entry requirements appropriate to the course. Further information on how these matters are supported during the admissions process is available in evils of internet essay, our guidance for applicants with disabilities.

All recommendations to admit a student involve the judgment of at least two members of academic staff with relevant experience and essay skills expertise, and additionally must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies or Admissions Committee (or equivalent departmental persons or bodies). Admissions panels or committees will always include at least one member of academic staff who has undertaken appropriate training. Whether you have yet secured funding is evils, not taken into abigail essay consideration in the decision to make an initial offer of a place, but please note that the initial offer of a place will not be confirmed until you have completed a Financial Declaration. Teaching and research in linguistic subjects is evils essay, centred around the Centre for Linguistics and Philology, which occupies part of the former Clarendon Press Institute on Walton Street. Machine! Facilities for graduate students include a common room, individual lockers, computer workstations and printers and a photocopier. Most graduate courses in linguistics and philology are held in the building, which as a whole is shared with the evils essay Oxford Centre for Hebrew and 12 angry men Jewish Studies. The Phonetics Laboratory has excellent provision for research in of internet, speech physiology and acoustics, and outstanding computing facilities. The experimental area consists of a recording studio, an acoustics and speech processing laboratory, a physiological laboratory and on sister carrie a speech perception laboratory.

Hardware for evils essay, physiological study, available to students and staff, includes electroglottography, labial electromyography, and williams oral/nasal aerometry (measurement of evils air pressures and flow). The studios, for recording and for physics coursework, running experiments, are equipped with high quality microphones and digital recording equipment, and computer systems for the presentation of visual and/or auditory stimuli. During the coming five years, the Phonetics Laboratory's main priorities for research are: prosody in child language acquisition; functional phylogenetic reconstruction of speech from the evils past; clinical applications of phonetics and speech technology, such as assessment of speech and language impairments, or of degenerative conditions (such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease). The Language and thesis statement summary Brain Laboratory contains 15 rooms including graduate student desk spaces, a meeting room, and several rooms fitted with specialised equipment for running practical experiments to help us understand how the brain processes language. It is an active research laboratory covering all aspects of linguistics, including phonology, morphology, syntax and of internet essay semantics. The experimental area includes a sound-proofed audiology booth for recording speech and running speech production and eye-tracking experiments, and a behavioural testing suite containing individual workstations for essays on sister, running up to ten participants simultaneously.

There are also two state-of-the-art electrically shielded, sound-proofed and climate controlled EEG booths for recording brain waves. All testing rooms have an associated control room to monitor the experiments and computers to analyse the of internet results. Oxford's library provision in linguistics is one of the on computer skills largest in the country. Oxford's libraries are superbly provided with material on evils of internet, theoretical linguistics, the structure and history of European languages (including specialist libraries in machine essay, Romance and Slavic linguistics), ancient Indo-European languages, and non-Indo-European as well as Indo-European languages of Asia. There are over 1,100 full graduate scholarships available across the University, and these cover your course and college fees and essay provide a grant for living costs. If you apply by the relevant January deadline and fulfil the eligibility criteria you will be automatically considered.

Over two thirds of Oxford scholarships require nothing more than the standard course application. Use the Fees, funding and scholarship search to find out which scholarships you are eligible for and if they require an additional application, full details of which are provided. The Ertegun Scholarship Programme and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) each provide a number of coursework ski jumping awards every year, to support graduate students across a range of disciplines. To be considered for these studentships you must apply by the relevant January admissions deadline. The fees shown above are the annual tuition and college fees for this course for entry in essay, the stated academic year; for courses lasting longer than one year, please be aware that fees will usually increase annually.

For details, please see our guidance on likely increases to fees and charges. Tuition and college fees are payable each year for the duration of your fee liability (your fee liability is the length of time for which you are required to pay tuition and critical essays on sister college fees). For more information about tuition fees, college fees and fee liability, please see the Fees section of this website. Of Internet Essay! EU applicants should refer to physics, our dedicated webpage for details of the implications of the UK’s plans to leave the European Union. Depending on the students choice of options, and especially the choice of thesis project, some fieldwork or experimental work may be required.

Some thesis options will require laboratory experiments, for which a budget of essay £75 is available to pay participants. Some may require overseas fieldwork, for which the gun history essay faculty has a budget of £500 towards travel and subsistence costs. The Faculty makes available some funding for evils of internet, language training, where relevant. In addition to your tuition and essays on sister college fees, you will need to ensure that you have adequate funds to support your living costs for the duration of your course. For the of internet essay 2018-19 academic year, the range of likely living costs is between c. Essay! ?1,015 and ?1,555 for each month spent in Oxford. Full information, including a breakdown of likely living costs in Oxford for items such as food, accommodation and evils study costs, is thesis summary, available on our Living costs page. The following colleges accept students on the MSt in General Linguistics and Comparative Philology: You are not required to make contact with an academic member of essay staff before you apply. The set of documents you should send with your application to this course comprises the following: Your transcripts should give detailed information of the ski jumping individual grades received in your university-level qualifications to date. You should only upload official documents issued by your institution and any transcript not in evils of internet essay, English should be accompanied by a certified translation.

More information about the transcript requirement is available in the Application Guide. A CV/resume is compulsory for all applications. Most applicants choose to thesis summary, submit a document of one to two pages highlighting their academic achievements and any relevant professional experience. Statement of purpose/personal statement: The statement should be written in English and evils be as specific as possible about thesis statement summary your background in evils of internet, linguistics and study aims.

This will be assessed for: your reasons for applying evidence of motivation for and understanding of the proposed area of 12 angry men study the ability to present a reasoned case in of internet, English commitment to the subject, beyond the essay on computer skills requirements of the evils of internet degree course capacity for sustained and essay intense work reasoning ability ability to absorb new ideas, often presented abstractly, at a rapid pace. Your statement should focus on essay, your background in linguistics (where relevant) and study aims rather than personal achievements, interests and aspirations. Two essays of 2,000 words each. Academic essays or other writing samples from your most recent qualification, written in English, are required. Physics! Extracts of the requisite length from longer work are also permissible. The written work need not relate closely to the proposed area of study, but applicants with prior experience of study in linguistics are encouraged to submit work on linguistic topics.

The word count does not need to include any bibliography or brief footnotes. This will be assessed for comprehensive understanding of the subject area of the essay, understanding of problems in the subject area of the essay, ability to construct and defend an argument, powers of analysis, and powers of effective expression in evils of internet essay, English. References/letters of recommendation: Three overall, generally academic. Whilst you must register three referees, the coursework ski jumping department may start the assessment of your application if two of the three references are submitted by the course deadline and your application is otherwise complete. Please note that you may still be required to ensure your third referee supplies a reference for consideration. All references should generally be academic. However, in the case of mature students or intended career changes, a professional reference may be submitted instead of one of the of internet essay academic references. If you are a current master’s student or have completed a master’s degree, one of your referees should be your supervisor or course director on the master’s programme.

If you do not provide a reference from abigail williams, your master’s supervisor or course director, the department will usually ask you to do so before completing the assessment of your application. Your references will support intellectual ability, academic achievement, motivation, and ability to work in a group. On Monday 2 October, the Graduate Admissions office will not be available to of internet, answer telephone queries. Online queries will be answered as normal. Telephone support will resume on Tuesday 3 October.

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Essay about The Internet - The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly | Bartleby

1984 research paper 1984 :Research Paper Assignment. You will read the novel 1984 and write a multi- source researched argument on one of the four topics suggested, unless otherwise approved in writing by the instructor, according to the criteria below: What you will submit: 1. Stapled and appropriately labeled final draft of your research paper. 2. Stapled and appropriately labeled rough draft of your research paper. Of Internet. (Please note: There should be substantial difference between your rough draft and your final draft.) 3. A formal business letter of self-evaluation, the instructions to which you can find on my website. 5. My written approval if you deviate from the four suggested topics. * Do not include a cover page and do not turn in your work in a folder. 1. Your essay must refer to one primary source (the novel) and to a minimum of four secondary sources. Each secondary source must be cited in the paper at least once.

2. Your essay must prove the thesis you select, through an appropriate use of summaries, quotes, and paraphrases from the primary and secondary sources. Papers not including textual evidence from each source will receive a failing grade. 3. All quotes and paraphrases are to adhere to MLA parenthetical citation requirements. 4. Your essay must begin with a fully developed introduction that includes a thesis sentence. 5. Your essay must end with a fully developed conclusion. 6. Your essay must be accompanied by 12 angry men, a works cited page ( MLA style, on a separate page). 1. Your paper is to evils, be 3-5 pages long (double spaced 12 pt. Arial or Times New Roman script; not including works cited page and heading) 2. Your paper is to be meticulously prepared using MLA format throughout.

1. You may be required to submit your final copy to Please watch for an e-mail about this. 2. I am not requiring your attendance at a conference for a rough draft of this paper; however, if I can help you, please come see me. Check my office hours on my homepage . These are topics on which you can write a substantial analytical paper. They are designed to test your understanding of major themes and details from this novel as a whole. 12 Angry Men. Following the topics are outlines you can use as a starting point for writing an analytical paper. The theme of betrayal is a dominant thread running throughout this novel.

Give examples of characters and essay, events that contribute to Winston’s final self#8722;betrayal. Make it clear that these examples intensify the novel’s overall mood of on sister carrie loneliness and alienation. I. Thesis statement: Orwell explores various kinds of of internet essay betrayal, including self#8722;betrayal, to heighten the mood of loneliness and on sister, alienation in 1984 . Evils Essay. II. Party intolerance of betrayal to its ideology. A. Indoctrination of children to critical on sister carrie, Party policy. C. Role of the Thought Police. III.

Individual characters’ betrayal of one another. A. Charrington’s betrayal of Winston and Julia. B. Evils Of Internet Essay. Parsons’ betrayal by his children. Abigail. C. Ampleforth’s betrayal by his work. D. O’Brien’s betrayal of Winston. IV. The hope symbolized by Winston and Julia’s love affair.

A. Evils Essay. The sanctuary of Charrington’s room. Essay On Computer. B. Evils Of Internet Essay. The lovers’ definition of betrayal. C. Winston’s betrayal of Julia. Williams. D. Julia’s admittance to betraying Winston. Evils. A. Winston’s capitulation to the Party. B. Thesis Statement. Implications of Winston’s defeat. VI.

Overall pessimism of the conclusion. Orwell uses the recurrent motif of the dream to reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow key events. Analyze these dreams for their implications. I. Thesis statement: Orwell uses the dream, a recurrent motif, as a mechanism to reveal background, develop character, and evils of internet, foreshadow events. II. The Golden Country. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 2. C. Common symbols and significance. III. The sinking ship. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 7. C. Interpretation as a key to Winston’s mother’s disappearance. IV. Physics Ski Jumping. “The place where there is no darkness”

A. Introduction of the dream with O’Brien as its speaker. B. The nightmarish wall of darkness. C. Literal interpretation of the dream. D. Significance of the rats. That 1984 is of internet, a satire on totalitarian states such as Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia and a warning to the West is one of the commonly accepted interpretations of the novel. Prove that this is 12 angry men, so by showing that Orwell did create a complete, repressive totalitarian state in Oceania.

I. Thesis statement: Orwell’s 1984 attacks the totalitarianism of the East while warning the West of its consequences. II. Party ideology. A. One#8722;party system. B. Hierarchical structure—Big Brother as leader. C. Total control of evils society. D. Party’s motive as explained by on computer, O’Brien. III.

Monitoring as an effort to eliminate insurrection. A. Thought Police. C. Hidden microphones. D. Passport checks. IV. Control of mass communication. A. Evils. Function of the Ministry of Truth. B. Winston’s job at the Ministry of Truth. C. Ampleforth’s function as poet.

D. Syme’s work on Newspeak. E. Constant announcements on telescreen. 12 Angry Men. F. Party motto—control of the past. V. Examples from History. A. Stalin’s Russia. B. Hitler’s Germany. The paperweight Winston purchases at Charrington’s shop takes on several meanings before its final destruction during Winston’s arrest. Explain Winston’s motive for buying the paperweight as well as its symbolic interpretation as it changes throughout the novel. I. Thesis statement: The coral paperweight purchased at Charrington’s shop becomes a dominant symbol in Orwell’s 1984 . II. Essay. Purchase of the paperweight.

A. Significance of Charrington’s shop as the essays on sister carrie, setting.

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EGAL - Essay Grading and evils of internet essay, Analysis Logic. The Project can be accessed online at Developers : Ajit Datar, Nagendra Doddapaneni, Sudip Khanna, Varsha Kodali and Archna Yadav. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC ESSAY GRADING. As it is said, the three R's of education are Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic. Coursework Ski Jumping? As a part of the same, writing has always formed an evils essay, important part of education, either while being imparted or being evaluated. As automation has become the order of the day, with most of the jobs being automated, evaluating essays has been an issue for long time. Since late 1960s, systems have been developed to evaluate essays automatically. One of the early systems developed to address the issue at hand was Project Essay Grader(PEG)[1].

This system was not accepted widely, because of the statement summary fact that most of the evils essay factors that this system considered were indirect, like number of commas, number of prepositions and number of coursework ski jumping uncommon words. The idea behind using such measures was intrinsic and hence was not widely accepted. After PEG, in the 1980s there was an essay evaluation system called Writer's Work Bench tool(WWB) which helped giving feedback for writers about various aspects such as spelling, diction and readability. The system had functionalities to evils support spell check and to point out often misused words. But because WWB did not take care of semantic analysis, it was limited in scope - in terms of 12 angry men evaluation. During the of internet essay same period Tom Landauer and his associates came up with an approach called Latent Semantic Analysis[13][20]. This Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based techniques use a ``bag of words'' approach, wherein the word order is not considered important, but similarity between words is and is measured using a co-occurrence matrix and singular value decomposition. Physics Coursework Ski Jumping? Tom Landuer and essay, his associates furthered research into machine essay, the approach and essay, developed the thesis statement summary essay Intelligent Essay Assessor(IEA)[14] system. Now there was another system that followed PEG, namely E-RATER[15][16], a system developed at ETS.

It used more direct measures and has been used to grade essays written in the GMAT exam. The measures used by E-RATER are more comprehensive and evils, include the document structure. Thus the students' response can be measured for similarity with a training set of essays and based on this similarity value, given a score on a point scale from 1-6, Later, in 1999 Christie architectured a new essay grading system SEAR (Schema Extract Analyse and physics ski jumping, Report)[17] which was based on a new parameter, the style of the essay rather than content. It required an initial training and evils of internet essay, calibration on a set of essays.

Also it had a reference content called the content schema which was represented as a data structure and coursework, can be flexibly revised as and evils of internet, when required. SEAR had inspired others to statement essay consider the style of the essay, though it had its pros and cons. In the following year, three students Ming, Mikhailov and Kuan at essay NGEE ANN polytechnic came up with an essay grading system called Intelligent Essay Marking Systems (IEMS)[18], which was based on the Pattern Indexing Neural Network(Indextron), a clustering algorithm that can be implemented over a neural network. Essay? IEMS was accoladed for its instant feedback to the student in a way by which students can learn where they had performed well and also the specifics of of internet their mistakes. Abigail Williams Essay? After three years of research and development, Mitchell, Russel, Broomhead, and Aldridge in 2002 came up with a software called Automark[19] intended for marking answers to open-ended questions. It is based on the NLP methods and incorporates methods for evils, spell checking, semantic checking and support for punctuation checking. Gun History? It looks for specific content in the free-text answers. Content is in evils, the form of templates which indicate correct or incorrect answers. Another step in the direction of automatic text assessment. In our system, there are four areas we are considering for essay, the evaluation of an essay.

They are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measure, Identifying Statements of Fact and Checking statements of fact for their accuracy. Let us discuss each of these modules one after the other. To start off, there can be two types of of internet gibberish sentences. Syntactic gibberish sentences and semantic gibberish sentences. A sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish if it is so ungrammatical that it does not make any sense. Essay On Computer? So a syntactically gibberish sentence is just not ungrammatical, it is so highly ungrammatical that the evils it is equivocal.

Let us consider the following sentence ``I go the market.'' It is ungrammatical, since the preposition ``to'' is missing in 12 angry men, the sentence. Evils? Even though this sentence is ungrammatical, we can still understand whats is being said. Now consider the essay on computer sentence ``At flying no market ran.'' This too is ungrammatical but it does not make any sense. Hence, it is considered to be syntactic gibberish. Now let us consider what semantic gibberish sentences are. Evils? A sentence like ``Colorless green ideas sleep furiously'' is considered semantically gibberish. Such sentences are grammatical but do not have any meaning. The more the number of gibberish sentences the less the student demonstrates command over written English, especially when writing in response to a prompt/topic.

Moving over to the next measure, we use an irrelevance measure to say if a sentence is essay, relevant to essay the given topic or not. Given a topic/prompt for the essay, a sentence from the gun history student's response is considered to be irrelevant if the sentence does not relate to the topic. Now to say automatically that a sentence does or does not relate to the topic, we compute the semantic similarity of the sentence with topic text. We use WordNet to find this similarity. Evils Of Internet? This means that the student can use a completely different set of words to talk about the topic and still be considered relevant. Physics? For example say the prompt asks the evils student to write about the ``Importance of class room teaching versus learning from home'' and the student writes ``Education is very important for one to coursework ski jumping succeed in life.'' This is considered to be relevant, because the words 'education', 'teaching' and 'learning' are semantically close to each other. Now if the student responds by evils essay writing ``The sun is the biggest star in the universe'', then the sentence is irrelevant, because it does not talk about the topic. The more the number of irrelevant sentences the less the student shows an understanding of the topic. The next measure is to on computer skills identify statements of fact from a student's response to an essay topic. A sentence is considered to be a fact against an opinion, if the following four properties hold good (i) Information presented Unique and One of a kind (ii) Information presented Concrete (iii) Information presented a Statement or Proposition and (iv) Information presented an of internet, association between more than one concept[2] So if the sentence contains such information, we can identify the statement to be a fact.

Now if on the other hand, one considers personal statements then they are not concrete and hence cannot be facts. Such personal statements would be opinions. Thus the gun history statements of fact would be identified against statements of opinion. Also questions and imperative statements form a category apart from statements of fact. If a sentence contains comparative adjectives like 'smarter' or superlative adjectives like 'smartest', or if the sentence contains comparative adverbs like 'faster' or superlative adverbs like 'fastest' then the sentence is not a statement of fact, because such a sentence would not be concrete. Also, sentences about future are not a proposition, as there is an element of uncertainty related with future, and hence such sentences cannot be statements of fact. Let us consider an example. Evils? If the topic was the 12 angry men same as given in the previous section about teaching, and if the student response was ``Learning from home started in USA from evils essay, 1965'' is considered to on computer be a statement of fact, irrespective of whether the essay statement is relevant or not. The statement contains information which is unique(1965), concrete ('something starting'), and has no words that can be interpreted in essays on sister carrie, more than one way in different contexts. Now if there was a sentence like ``Learning in class rooms is good'', it is evils of internet, not a statement of essay skills fact, but a statement of opinion, because what seems to be 'good' to one person, might not be the same for evils of internet, another.

Thus personal statements cannot be considered as statements of fact. Thus the more such facts are stated, the better we evaluate what the student envisions about the topic at hand, by abigail relating the topic with concrete statements i.e. facts. The final measure to essay be used for evaluating essays is evaluating statements of fact for accuracy. Now that we have identified the statements of fact, we check to see if those facts are accurate and if they are, they contribute to a boost in thesis essay, the score. Let us consider the evils essay topic from the last measure about learning. On Sister? If the student writes ``Class room teaching started in 1965 in the USA'' and say in fact that it started in 2000. Then although the statement is a fact, it is not accurate. Thus inaccurate facts contribute inversely to the score, while accurate facts contribute positively to the score.

IMPLEMENTATION OF BASELINE APPROACH. The four measures implemented are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measurement, Identifying statements of fact and checking for Accuracy of Statements of Fact. The best results would be when we run each of the modules in the above order, so that for each phase we get sentences that are more appropriate to check i.e. if a sentence is gibberish, then there is essay, no point in checking to see if it is relevant or not, and if a sentence is irrelevant then there is no point in checking to see if it is a statement of fact or not. Let us look at the implementation of each of the four modules - The EGAL::Gibberish module implements Gibberish Detection. The method implemented is.

isGibberish() - This method determines if a given sentence is gibberish or not. It first checks to critical on sister see if a sentence is semantic gibberish or not as follows - The module first strips off the stop words from the sentence. The remaining content-bearing words are stemmed using the stemmer provided along with Lingua::EN::Tagger. Stop words refer to a list of function words, that contribute to the grammar alone and not to the meaning of the sentence. If there are at least three content-bearing words in the sentence, then for all such words, using similarity metrics described later, we compute how similar each word is to every other word. Thus if we have N words in evils of internet essay, the sentence, we end up with a NxN matrix. Then we compute the average of all the entries in the matrix to determine the semantic coherence of the sentence, a value between 0 and 1. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the percentage gibberishness of the sentence. If the scaled score is above an abigail williams, empirically decided threshold of 90%, then the sentence is flagged as semantic gibberish. Let us consider the evils of internet sentence ``There is on the list fish and essay, meat that are eating each other''. The only content-bearing words in this sentence are 'eating', 'meat' and 'list'.

The semantic similarities between these words are eating-meat - 0.1581 eating-list - 0 meat-list - 0. This gives us a value of 0.0527 for the semantic coherence of this sentence. Percentage gibberishness is calculated as (1-0.0527)*100, i.e. 95.73% which is essay, above the threshold of 90% and essay, hence we flag this sentence as semantic gibberish.The threshold we have used has been experimentally derived. After working on a list of sentences which were assessed by humans as gibberish/non-gibberish, the system was tuned to be consistent with the evils aforementioned judgments, by setting the 12 angry men threshold accordingly. To compute the similarity between words, we used WordNet::Similarity::wup. Of Internet Essay? The measure has been used for words found in WordNet. For those words not found in statement summary, the knowledge base, a similarity value of 0 is essay, used, which results in a reduction of semantic coherence and therefore an increase in gibberishness, which is complimentary to semantic coherence. We POS tagged the sentence using Lingua::EN::Tagger to identify the part of speech of every word in the sentence. Coursework? While computing the similarity between sentences, we considered all the senses of a word, given the part of speech that was used in the sentence. Now as we know the part of speech of a word, we would be able to distinguish the sense of the evils word ``I'' as used in the sentence ``I am going there.'', where ``I'' would be a pronoun and critical essays on sister, as in a sentence like ``The element I is essay, found in the periodic table'', where ``I'' would be a noun, as in Iodine.

This would enable us to handle some of the surprising words found in WordNet, based on the part of speech of that word in the sentence. If the sentence is below the threshold (not semantic gibberish) then we check to see if it is syntactic gibberish. Physics Coursework Ski Jumping? To determine if a sentence is syntactic gibberish, we do the following - If the percentage of unknown words and unused links (score) in the sentence is more than an empirical threshold then we say that this sentence is syntactic gibberish. The threshold has been experimentally found to work best at a value of 50%. Evils Of Internet Essay? A syntactic gibberish sentence would have lot of unused links according to summary essay Lingua::LinkParser, a grammar parser used to evils of internet parse sentences. Based on this, if the score is 0 then the critical essays sentence is grammatical. If it is a relatively small value it is ungrammatical but not gibberish and if it is high, then the sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish. This method takes in a sentence from the students response for a topic as input and evils of internet essay, returns an array, with the zero index contains a 1 if the essay on computer sentence is gibberish and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array contains the evils of internet essay gibberish score associated with the sentence and at index 2, the skills array contains detailed trace of execution. The alpha version for the module started with identifying only syntactically gibberish sentences.

To flag a sentence as syntactic gibberish, we considered an absolute value of the essay number of unknown words and abigail, unused links. If that value was greater than 3 then we termed the sentence as gibberish. But this value of 3 remained as threshold be it a sentence of length 5 or length 25. For the beta version, the module was able to essay identify semantically gibberish sentences as described above. An improvement over beta version, has been achieved in abigail williams essay, the final version, with modification of the absolute threshold for syntactic gibberish sentences. The threshold has now been converted to a percentage of evils of internet unknown words/unused links. Essay On Computer? Thus if such words/links are 3 out of 5, then as this percentage is 60%, we flag the sentence as syntactic gibberish. Essay? If such words/links are 3 out of abigail 25, then as this percentage is 12%, we do not flag this sentence as syntactic gibberish, even if there were 3 such words/links.

isIrrelevant() - This method takes in a sentence from the students' response as input. It then computes the essay relevance of the sentence with the topic/prompt. Ski Jumping? We consider the content-bearing words to contribute to the relevance of a sentence. Now we consider each of the evils essay content-bearing words from the ski jumping input sentence and we compare each such word with every word in the topic. So for evils of internet essay, every word in coursework ski jumping, the topic, we find the maximum similarity that such a word has with any word in the input sentence, using WordNet::Similarity::wup. We then compute the average over all such maximum similarities for each word in the topic. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and evils essay, 100 is the percentage irrelevance of the sentence. Statement Essay? If this score is above an empirically decided threshold then the sentence is considered to essay be irrelevant. After experimenting with sample responses for topics/prompts, we have decided on a threshold of 70%.

With such a threshold most of the sentences that a human assessor would evaluate as irrelevant are being detected as irrelevant. This method returns an essay, array with its zero index returning a 2 if the sentence is irrelevant and a 0 otherwise. The array index 1 contains the evils essay irrelevant score between 0 and 100. Essay? The array index 2 contains the detailed execution trace. The alpha version for the module started with comparing words from the student's response to words in evils essay, the topic and ``gold standard essay''. This list of ``gold standard essays'' have been written by an expert in the field, for every possible essay topic that the statement summary system would handle.

This word match also considered synonymous words by of internet essay using, but the module was still looking for word match, which is gun history essay, not necessarily a semantic match. Thus for the beta version, the module found the semantic similarity between a sentence from student's essay and the topic, by using WordNet::Similarity::wup. Thus the problem of maintaining ``Gold Standard Essay''s has also been eliminated. Of Internet Essay? The performance of the module has been found to be satisfactory and hence has been retained for the final version. The EGAL::FactIdent module implements the Identification of Statements of Fact.

The methods implemented are. fill_stop_hash - this method fills a hash with value words that say that a sentence containing such words is an opinion, not a fact. fill_fact_hash - this method fills a hash with fact words that say that a sentence containing such words is thesis summary essay, a fact. which are called as a part of the evils constructor. isFact - this method takes in a sentence from the students response for critical, a topic/prompt. Evils Of Internet Essay? It first checks to see if the sentence contains a comparative adjective like 'smarter' or a superlative adjective like 'smartest' or a comparative adverb like 'higher' or a superlative adverb like 'highest'. Skills? If the sentence contains such a word, then it is of internet essay, identified not to 12 angry men be a statement of fact. Next it is checked to see if the of internet sentence is in any form of future tense. If it is, then the sentence is identified not to be a statement of fact. Then it is checked to see if the sentence is a question and abigail, if it is then it is evils, not a statement, let alone a statement of fact. Then it is checked to physics coursework see if this sentence contains value words or fact words.

If it contains such words, then the sentence is evils, identified to be a statement of abigail opinion or statement of fact respectively. Now, that if a sentence contains value words, it makes it a statement of opinion, was given by John Langan[6] in a discussion about distinguishing facts from opinions. Now we obtained a list of such value words from a project that worked on identifying such value words[7]. The list of value words and fact words have been put up on links [21] and [22] respectively. Also if the statement contains statistics then it is evils essay, identified to be a statement of fact.

Finally as we identify statements of fact using elimination, all others sentences which do not qualify for any of the 12 angry men other conditions would be treated as statements of of internet fact. This module also returns an array with index zero returning a 4 if the sentence is a statement of fact and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array returns always returns a 0 as there is no concept of a score associated with identifying statements of fact and at index 2 the array returns a message indicating if the sentence is a statement of fact or not. If not, the reason as to why the sentence is not a statement of fact is sent here. The alpha version for the module started with identifying value words in sentences. Essay Skills? Such sentences with value words are identified to be statements of essay opinion.

If sentences contained fact words then the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. Also if a sentence contained statistics then again the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. 12 Angry Men? For the beta version, we have identified sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs not to evils of internet essay be statements of fact. Carrie? Also sentences in evils of internet essay, future tense have been identified not to be statements of fact. The module has been found to work satisfactorily and hence has been retained for final version. The EGAL::FactCheck module checks the statements of facts for accuracy. The method implemented is. check_fact() - This method takes in a sentence from the students response to a prompt/topic. A linkParser[4] tree for the above sentence is machine gun history essay, built. Using regular expressions the subjects for all the evils verbs is identified.

A Google query is then constructed to search [3] using the subjects and any proper nouns in the sentence. If there are no proper nouns, all noun phrases are used. The first Google result is taken and 12 angry men, full text associated with this Wikipedia entry is retrieved. We then calculate the frequencies of of internet essay all the n-grams in 12 angry men, the sentence as observed in the full text. We have considered n-grams of at most length 3. and applied Witten-Bell smoothing to of internet the obtained frequency list. A confidence measure is calculated for williams essay, each sentence. The measure takes in some arguments that we shall now see. Essay? 'n' refers to the number of words in the n-gram. 'count' refers to the number of times the n-gram has occurred in the wikitext/sentence. 'N' refers to the maximum n-gram length considered which is in our case is 3. Thesis Summary? Thus based on whether the count is positive or negative, we add or subtract n*(log(count) + N) respectively to the 'measure'. This is done for each of the n-grams in the sentence. Also if count is positive an essay, accumulated score of n*(log(count) + N) is made to 'max' and to williams 'min' otherwise. We compute the final 'score' as score = (measure - min) * 100 / (max - min) This score represents the confidence, expressed as a percentage, with which we say that a particular statement of fact is accurate. The module started with the beta version for the project.

The module has been found to work satisfactorily, except for return status of facts. The verbosity of the return message has been enhanced to display more information in the log files. With this modification, the module was ready for the final version. Following is a list of tasks and group member who worked on the same - Gibberish Detection - Sudip Khanna and Ajit Datar. Irrelevance Measure - Sudip Khanna. Identifying Statements of Fact - Nagendra Doddapaneni.

Checking Accuracy of Statements of Fact - Ajit Datar and Sudip Khanna. Web-Interface - Archana Yadav and Ajit Datar. Installation and Administration - Ajit Datar. Documentation - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Varsha Kodali. Literary Review - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Varsha Kodali. Irrelevance Measure - EGAL::Relevance identifies sentences to be relevant based on similarity score calculated using WordNet::Similarity::wup. If the percentage irrelevance is More than a threshold then the sentence is considered to evils be irrelevant and relevant otherwise. Identifying Statements of Fact - EGAL::FactIdent identifies sentences to essay on computer skills be statements of evils of internet fact or not based on the occurrence of coursework fact words and stop words respectively.

If value words occur in a sentence from the student's response, then the sentence is considered to be an opinion, because value words are mostly used to express personal view. If fact words such as ``first'' occur in the student's response or a number occurs in evils essay, the sentence which is not gibberish and is relevant, then the sentence is considered to be a statement of thesis statement summary essay fact. Also questions are not statements themselves and hence are not statements of fact. Even sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs are not considered be statements of fact as they are not concrete. Also if the essay sentence is in any form of future tense then again the sentence is not a statement of fact as it not a proposition. Checking Statement of essays on sister Fact for Accuracy - EGAL::FactCheck determines the accuracy of the statements of facts. As mentioned before this module first constructs a LinkParser tree for the sentence from the student response to of internet essay a prompt and identifies the subject using regular expressions. Then a Google query is constructed and fired to coursework ski jumping using the subject and evils, proper nouns/noun phrases. Using the first Google result, fulltext for this Wikipedia record is retrieved.

Now to check the accuracy of the statement, we develop a score based on the statistics obtained from considering all n-grams from the sentence and applying Witten-Bell smoothing to the frequency of such n-grams as observed in the wikitext. Presently n-grams of length upto 3 are being considered. Thus using this score, we can say that the given statement is a statement of fact with score% confidence. The four modules that we have implemented, give us details of the percentage of 12 angry men gibberish sentences, irrelevant sentences and of internet essay, statements of 12 angry men fact, along with their accuracy. With this information in hand, to develop a scoring mechanism consistent with as scored by a humam grader, would be difficult. Thus we came up with a measure with uses maximum information that can be derived from evils of internet, what statistics the critical modules offer. The scoring mechanism that we are using, is a two-phase scoring mechanism. During the initial phase, we consider two bins of sentences. A bin of good sentences which contain statements of fact and ordinary sentences. A bin of bad sentences which contain gibberish sentences and irrelevant sentences.

We compute the total percentage of sentences from the essay, that go into each of the two bins. Of Internet? For example, if the carrie essay had 10% sentences which are gibberish, 20% sentences are irrelevant, 30% sentences are statements of fact and the remaining 40% sentences are ordinary sentences. Evils? Then the thesis statement summary total percentage of sentences in the good bin is 70%, while the total percentage of sentences in evils of internet essay, the bad bin is 30%. Then if the good bin has higher percentage sentences than the critical essays on sister bad bin, as is the case, then we consider the score of the of internet essay to be either 3, 4, 5 or 6. The higher the percentage of sentences in the good bin, the thesis summary essay higher would be the score. For the given example, a score of say 4 is assigned. Now, if there were higher percentage sentences in of internet, the bad bin, then a score of either 0, 1, 2 or 3 would be assigned. Machine Gun History? Thus the initial phase scoring mechanism assigns an integral score to the essay. Now, the final phase scoring mechanism, considers all the statements of evils essay fact. It computes the mean of the confidence levels associated with each of the statements of fact.

If the mean is 12 angry men, greater than 50, then the score assigned by the intial phase scoring mechanism, is evils of internet, incremented by a fraction. If the mean is less than 50, then instead of a score boost, the abigail score would be penalised. Evils Of Internet Essay? By how much, is abigail williams, dependent on the confidence level of of internet facts. For example, there were two statements of fact in the essay. One was verified with 62% confidence level and the other was verified with 78% confidence level. Then the mean of the 12 angry men confidence levels would be (62+78)/2 which is 70%.

Now, since this value is greater than the threshold of of internet 50%, the score of 4, assigned by the initial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by the final phase scoring mechanism. So say, a score boost of williams essay 0.6 is given. Then the final score would be the sum of the scores assigned by intial phase scoring mechanism and the boost given by the final phase scoring mechanism. So for evils, the example that we considered, the final score would be 4.0 + 0.6 = 4.6 . Now this final value is williams, rounded off to the nearest half number. So 4.6 is rounded off to 4.5 . Essay? In the final phase mechanism, the value for critical essays carrie, score boost has been identified to evils essay be following an exponential i.e. for a mean of 60%, the boost to be given is less, while for a mean of 95%, the boost to be given is much more. Thus an exponential function [((mean-50)*1.26)/50]^3 has been experimentally found to work well, for scoring the essays. As a part of evaluation, we have in place modules which check to see if a given sentence is gibberish, if not if its irrelevant and if not if its a statement of fact and if it is essay, then we check for its accuracy. Thus on running the system over the following input - The following are the evils essay sentences that have been successfully identified as gibberish by the EGAL::Gibberish module - Thus keeping the scores, assigned by each of the modules ,in view and their identification of sentences, in coursework ski jumping, the respective categories, rightfully, the system has been able to achieve expected results. Following is a detailed run of the system, with details about some sample essays that the user has given for some prompts used in evils essay, the system.

Details about what sentences in each of the following essays have been identified as gibberish, irrelevant and 12 angry men, statements of fact can be seen in the following text. The following is a response which was graded to be a 3 point essay. Our EGAL system graded the evils of internet essay to a 3.49 score. This was for the prompt: The user response is machine gun history essay, : The next essay was evaluated to be a 4 pointer, and it was evaluated to be a 2.61. The essay topic was.

For a third essay, the EGAL system has graded the evils of internet system to be a 4.0 pointer, where the essay was graded to be a 5.0 pointer. The topic of the essay was : The user response was : The fourth essay is a combination of two 3-point essays written by our co-students for a prompt given commonly in class. The EGAL system graded this grouped essay to be a 3.62. The student response was. -------------------------------------------------- DETAILED DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ESSAY: -------------------------------------------------- Type of Sentences Identified Percentage Gibberish 17.39 Irrelevance 17.39 Facts 26.09 Ordinary 39.13 Percentage of essays carrie Gibberish Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Irrelevant Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Fact Sentences were: 26.09 Percentage of Ordinary Sentences were: 39.13 No. of Gibberish Sentences were: 4 No. of Irrelvant Sentences were: 4 No. of Facts Sentences were: 6 No. of Ordinary Sentences were: 9 gibberish sentences were as follows Sentence Many students write essays for of internet, exam, some write good, some bad, some worst. Points 91.51% Semantic gibberish Sentence The compter cannot get this idea of good, bad, and 12 angry men, worst. Points 63.64% Syntactic gibberish Sentence In this case the computer would just be too good to score and give good score to someone who cant even write a creative sentence nor can write grammatical correct sentece.

Points 92.21 Semantic gibberish Sentence Using computers makes work faster. Points 94.44% Semantic gibberish irrelevant sentences were as follows: Sentence Last but not least, computer scoring ethically is not good. Points 75.51% Sentence Automated essay scoring is essay, used in GMAT and GRE. Essays? Points 72.83% Sentence If a good computer is evils essay, used this difference can be reduced. Points 70.31% Sentence It just has some difference but not to a greater extent and such deviations can be ignored as even humans make mistakes. Points 75.00% fact sentences were as follows: Sentence It just tries to find information the ways it is supposed to and scores that way. Points 40.23% I can say this is a fact with 40.23 percent confidence Sentence It uses computers to grade student essays. Points 0.00% I can say this is a fact with 0.00 percent confidence Sentence First of all, the difference between human graded essay and computer graded essay is not very significant. Points 22.31% I can say this is a fact with 22.31 percent confidence Sentence Both tend to be the same.

Points 14.48% I can say this is a fact with 14.48 percent confidence Sentence Even though each student has his own views the computer is intelligent enough to catch the thesis statement summary differences and grade accordingly. Points 37.05% I can say this is a fact with 37.05 percent confidence Sentence Thus, the computer does not grade an essay harshly than humans. Points 13.05% I can say this is a fact with 13.05 percent confidence ordinary sentences were as follows: Sentence Thts why automated essay scoring is unfair to students. Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``thts'' Subjects: ``scoring '' Google query: ``scoring '' ``thts'' System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence For examples, many student know that the computer checks the essays, therefore they learn how to ebat the machine rather then being creative to write their essays and learn something. Of Internet Essay? Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' Subjects: ``''``examples '' Google query: ``''``examples '' ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence Another point here we can see is that the computer learns from essays written by students, now if the sample essays are not that creative then if someone writes creative essay it will just get confused and give some random score, if not then it will give the best possible score which is still not correct. Message This sentence has comparitive/superlative adverbs/adjectives Sentence So is it fair to get garbage or grate score from machine?

Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' Subjects: Google query: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence To conclude I would say stop this computer scoring, it doesnt make sense when you write an essay thinking hard and someobody who is not real grades it for you and gives you something that you dont confidence about. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It also reduces the williams essay work load on human graders. Message This sentence contains the value word work Sentence As a student writes an essay the computer can understand how the evils of internet student writes and this will help it in grading. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence Finally, I feel that the usage of automated essay scoring is good and should be followed by all including schools and universities.

Message This sentence is in thesis summary essay, future tense Sentence It will help students and teachers a lot. Message This sentence is in future tense. The fifth essay sample that we are looking at is the topic/prompt given as the of internet response for a topic/prompt. The EGAL system has evaluated such a tricky response to a score of 1.96. The topic/prompt was. The response was entered to be. This would usually trick a system, as the response seems to be pseudo-relevant. Ski Jumping? But here is the analysis of how EGAL handles the same- Now for the sixth essay, we considered a 6 point esssay which was graded as 4.99 on our EGAL system. The essay topic was : The user response was: Now for the seventh essay, we considered the same 6-point essay for the trvious topic, and evaluated it for a different topic.

The EGAL system graded the essay to be a 2.99 score essay. The response was the same as the one for the last one. There are some systems that we would like to acknowledge, since we used them as a part of our system. For Gibberish Detection, we used Link Grammar, a grammar parser[4]. This parser enables us to evils of internet essay find unused links and unknown words in a sentence. With the help of this parser, we were able to identify syntactic gibberish. We have used WordNet::Similarity package, built on WordNet2.0[10] for finding the semantic similarity between two words. This is used in identifying semantic gibberish as well as relevance of a sentence to abigail the topic. For identifying statements of fact, we used ideas from evils of internet, online resources [2], [6], [7] and [8]. Each of 12 angry men these references have helped us decide the basis on which to distinguish facts from opinions and also to of internet essay identify the properties of a statement of fact.

To check for the accuracy of these statements of facts, we use the idea of a fact repository from Static Knowledge Sources[9], which would be[3] in our case. We access this online encyclopedia by 12 angry men constructing a Google query using Google API[11] and fire the query to retrieve wikitext for evils of internet essay, the first match found by Google in [1] Page, E.B. Gun History Essay? , 1994, New Computer grading of student prose, using modern concepts and software, Journal of Experimental Education. [5] Peter W. Foltz, Darrell Laham, Thomas K. Landauer, The Intelligent Essay Assessor: Applications to of internet Educational Technology, [7] Human Value Project,, Union of International Associations 1997 - 2004. [9] The Static Knowledge Sources: Ontology, Fact Repository and Lexicons, [10] WordNet 2.0, ``A lexical database for the English language'', [12] Valentini, Salvatore, Francesca Neri, and Alessandro Cucchiarelli. 2003. An Overview of Current Research on Automated Essay Grading.

In JITE, Vol-2,2003. [13] Deerwester, S.C., Dumais, S.T., Landauer, T.K., Furnas, G.W., and Harshman R.A. , 1990, Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. [14] Hearst, M., 2000, The debate on automated essay grading. IEEE Intelligent Systems. [15] Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Chi, L., and 12 angry men, Chodorow M., 1998, Enriching automated essay scoring using discourse marking.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse Relations and Discourse Marking, Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Canada. [16] Burstein, J., Leacock, C., and Swartz, R. Of Internet? , 2001, Automated evaluation of essay and short answers. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. [17] Christie, J.R., 1999, Automated essay marking-for both style and content. Proceedings of the abigail essay Third Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

[18] Ming, P.Y., Mikhailov, A.A., and Kuan, T.L., 2000, Intelligent essay marking system. Learners Togeather, Feb 2000, NgccANN Polytechnic, Singapore IEMS. [19] Mitchell, T., Russel, T., Broomhead, P., and Aldridge N.(2002) . Towards robust computerized marking of free-text responses. Evils Essay? Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.