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biography contents Chapter 1, Emerging from the Waltham Chrysalis. . ancestry, childhood, education, apprenticeship. pp 1-14. . joins the what Democrats and temperance, briefly editor, actor, then Rantoul follower, law student, marries, first elections, pp 15-37. . state legislator, joins coalition with Free-Soilers, elected speaker of state House, slavery issues in short, Mass., . aids Charles Sumner, pushes Mass. claims in Washington, follows Rantoul and Daniel Webster around. pp 38-50. Chapter 4, Congressman Banks Goes to Washington. . elected to U. S. House, presides at constitutional convention, first efforts in what to include in a powerpoint, Congress, votes against Kansas-Nebraska, pp 51-66. . Antigone. just barely included in the 1854 Know-Nothing party sweep in Massachusetts, his views on immigrant policies and Catholicism, pp 67-79. Chapter 6, A Northern Coalesence around Speaker Banks. . works for fusion of Free-Soilers and Know-Nothings in Massachusetts, same coalition under Republican label elects him. . Speaker of House after longest-ever, tumultous contest, 1855-56. pp 80-100. What In A. Chapter 7, Forging a Republican Party. . Write Proposal. promotes Sam Houston, then John C. Fremont, for president, becomes temporary nominee of (North) American party to. . accomplish merger with Republicans, travels in fall for Fremont whose poorly-run campaign fails. What Thesis Powerpoint. pp 101-123. . Speaker Banks unusually fair in appointments and decisions, top-notch parliamentarian, appoints committee to. . investigate caning of antigone essay Senator Sumner but almost drawn into a duel, works with committee investigating Kansas war. pp 124-42. . after short, new term in Congress, 1857, serves three terms as Massachusetts governor during depression, gradually sheds. . Know-Nothing ties, cuts spending, straddles major issues, beefs up militia, assists Fremont's ventures, gilds the dome, pp 143-67. Chapter 10, In the Doldrums at the Windy City - Part I. . tries and fails to obtain Republican presidential nomination in Chicago, 1860. pp 168-81. . accepts position of to include resident director of Illinois Central Railroad in Chicago,moves family there, Lincoln considers him. . for his cabinet, promotes purchase of Illinois railroad land in early 1861 under tight control of RR president. pp 182-209. . President Lincoln selects the inexperienced Banks as one of the most senior generals after Civil War begins, . the context explained. pp 210-229. . in June 1861 takes command at Annapolis and Baltimore, follows orders to arrest pro-Confederate officials. . the context of wartime suspension of habeas corpus explained. pp 230-37. Prompts. . o rdered to what in a western Maryland to replace slow-moving General Robert Patterson who allowed Rebel force to go to Bull. . Run, stops Maryland legislative meeting, as reserve division his men moved downriver to support the middle Potomac. p 238-56. . Potomac upriver in winter to take advantage of opportunities, drilling picketing, some partying for soldiers. pp 257-83. . Thesis Proposal. Genl.
McClellan has Banks's division cross the river to occupy Winchester, Virginia. While Banks moves half his men. . to the east, Stonewall Jackson is what in a powerpoint bloodied when his force tries to damage the others at Kernstown near Winchester. pp 284-99. Chapter 17, Chasing Stonewall in the Shenandoah. . command of Banks's men, Stonewall leaves the Shenandoah Valley entirely as Banks advances. pp 300-23. Chapter 18 , Retracing Steps. . Banks's emissaries fail to convince Washington to concentrate forces or send reinforcements. Quote From In Essay. pp 324-37. Chapter 19, The Winchester Races. . forces Banks's men at nearby Strasburg to rush north to powerpoint Winchester, Stonewall attacks part of the write thesis proposal Union column. pp 338-61. . wagons head north, a civilian tries to kill Banks who then leads somewhat orderly, rapid retreat to Potomac. pp 362-381.
Chapter 21 , Chasing Stonewall Again. . two forces from east and west are bloodied by Stonewall up the valley, Banks's corps stationed in the northern valley. pp 382-92. Chapter 22 , Invading the Heart of Virginia. . Thesis Powerpoint. but is stuck in Washington. finally on the scene, Pope almost finishes moving his men south when Stonewall attacks. pp 393-416. Chapter 23 , One Final Encounter with Stonewall. . that seem to encourage some type of attack, explanation of the interaction with Pope's staff and the topography. pp 417-440. Chapter 24 , Acting Magnificently? . forces have to essay family pull back as additional Confederates arrive, then arriving Union corps stabilizes the front. pp 441-62. . leaves, Banks badly injured by what in a horse, Northern newspapers Lincoln think well of Banks the battle, controversies fester. pp 463-84. Chapter 26 , Relocation to Washington. . Washington's defenses and to direct intelligence about essay prompts for uc Virginia, Lincoln visits often in Washington where Banks now popular, pp 485-9. . his corrupt(?) ways and what in a thesis, problematic baiting of foreign consuls there. he others ordered to open the Mississippi River. pp 497-517. . shipping suddenly befriend Banks. the soldiers finally land unannounced in New Orleans in overpacked ships. pp 518-37.
Chapter 29 , Replacing the Beast. Prompts For Uc Colleges. . Washington half-heartedly promises to return him, Banks moderates Butler's martial-law policies some, rejects bribes. pp 538-51. Chapter 30 , Setbacks and what to include in a powerpoint, Reorganization. . version of Emancipation Proclamation, initiates work system for runaway slaves, is handicapped by artillery/cavalry. 200 Words Essay About. pp 552-77. . both blocked in what in a thesis powerpoint, some way by water problems, Weitzel's plan to bypass Port Hudson ok'd, desertions and mutinies. pp 578-600. Chapter 32 , A Visit to Port Hudson. . are under water, but navy gets several ships upriver, navy angry at delays in research papers, capturing the town, soldiers unhappy no fighting,p 601-16. Chapter 33 , Conquering the Teche. What To Include In A Thesis. . Quote From. rich cotton caches and to include, needed horses, destroy key salt source and devastate agricultural production as Rebels flee. pp 615-42. Chapter 34, Confusion, Confusion, Confusion. . Grant goes inland but does not update Banks, navy threatens leaving, Grant solves Banks's boat problem and lack of cavalry. p 643-. 67. . Vicksburg, he reports it is ok to surround Port Hudson, Banks moves two forces to Port Hudson, the situation there explained..pp 668-. 88. . generals do not cooperate, one general decides not to attack at all, but first, large-scale use of black troops aids acceptance, pp 689-. 717. Biology Thesis. . To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint. Hudson assault which also fails, Rebels threaten New Orleans from the west, and Union short timers cause problems. pp 718-45. . slow to arrive, the threat to New Orleans eliminated, Banks's method of parole causes temporary problems. pp 746-59. Chapter 39 , Enough Feathers to Cover the Eggs? . of in essay military justice, the Banks labor system implemented, and treasury supervisor Flanders begins a turf battle. pp 760-87. . hurry to have elections, Shepley's registrar goes from slave owner to what powerpoint ultraradical, says elections impossible, Lincoln angry,pp 788-802. Chapter 41 , Master of Everything. . vie for governor, and with a lot of help from Banks the essay for uc voters choose pro-Lincoln, moderate Michael Hahn as governor. pp 803-19.
Chapter 42 , Launching a New Regime. . wife are king and queen of 1864 busy social season, a different view of Banks's 1864 presidential ambitions. pp 820-38. To Include. Chapter 43 , Soldiers and short, Boats. . troops in later combat, Banks's supplies seized by Union forces upriver and the navy refuses to to include thesis powerpoint supply needed boats. pp 839-48. Chapter 44 , A Bare-Chested Irishman Defeats All the Yankees. . intended coastal landing Franklin's party drawn into naval defeat at Sabine Pass, Grant's controversial accident. Research. pp 849-80. Chapter 45 , Marking Time on the Teche. . transports arrive Banks decides to land in Texas, Genl. Franklin ordered to in a thesis powerpoint pretend still to march by land. pp 881-90. Chapter 46 , Planting the Flag in Texas. . in Mexico, Federals occupy long outer islands and mouth of Rio Grande, smuggling resumes upriver. Anorexia Research Papers. pp 891-917. Chapter 47 , Treasures of the Red River? . Banks forwards to all involved an engineer's report critical of operating on the river, Sherman diverted to Meridian. To Include In A Powerpoint. pp 918-42. Chapter 48 , Preparations for the Big Move. . some decisions not made, the Confederates confused about Union activities but send all troops toward Shreveport. pp 943-59. Chapter 49 , The Juggernaut Moves up Red River. . units push the Rebels well upriver, taking two Rebel sites in two night operations under General Mower. Thesis Proposal. pp 960-76. Chapter 50 , Over the Falls to to include powerpoint Johnny's Place.
. differing memories of events, the force advances north to Natchitoches, detachments erode Federal force. pp 977-96. Chapter 51 , What Lurks in the Forest Primeval. . a bayou, Banks chooses road through pine forest as best of bad choices as Confederates undecided what to do. pp 997-1014. Antigone Essay. Chapter 52 , The Confederate Day of Prayer and Killing. . vanguard, they lose a wagon train also, but arrival of Genl. Emory's men halts the Rebel advance at dusk. pp 1015-1042. . retreats due to logistics and most generals' opposition to to include thesis powerpoint advancing, endangered admiral's letters exaggerate events. pp 1043-65. . Anorexia. Disputes over whether Banks intended to return upriver as river supply route continues to fall, Grant orders Banks. . not to what thesis powerpoint mention new plans to leave for Mobile, retreat to Alexandria, fight at Cane River, Banks makes plans to stay with. . stranded fleet, his foes tell newspapers differently. pp 1066-90. . arrives, Confederates close lower river, Porter's brother-in-law spreads wild stories up North, Alexandria burns. pp 1091-1116. Chapter 56 , The Expedition Sputters to essay about an End. . Lincoln appoints Edward Canby as regional commander over Banks, army returns to Mississippi Riv.with two. . To Include Powerpoint. engagements en route, Canby arrives, curious later repeat of Red River errors (Genls. A. J. Prompts For Uc Colleges. Smith, Grant). pp 1117-43. Thesis Powerpoint. . Banks sees that Louisiana constitutional convention makes allowance for future black voting, Lincoln insists on govt. . Short Essay On Pets. worker support for constitution, while Banks is on leave Lincoln criticizes other Louisiana genls. for restricting state govt., pp 1144-69. Chapter 58 , Lounging around the White House. . policies, Banks defends his policies before various committees and in public; Sen.
Sumner blocks La.'s admission. pp 1170-92. . Smith tries unsuccessfully to get Banks, report finds much wrongdoing but mostly ignores that of regular officers. pp 1193-216. . agreed to obtain Confederate cotton cache using briber Weed, the investigators dislike La. In A Powerpoint. state convention and quote, govt., pp 1217-49. Chapter 61 , A Few Selective Oversights. . What In A Thesis Powerpoint. ignores the books irregularities in the navy's very lucrative seizure of cotton from which Admiral Porter profited. pp 1250-63. Chapter 62 , Monarchy Redux, Monarchy Overthrown. . slavery men, Banks decides to seek election to thesis Congress, his large —but manageable—personal wartime bills analyzed, pp 1264-82. . Northerners there was critical to Lincoln and Banks plans, interpretation problems explained. Proposal. pp 1283-94. Chapter 64 , Spagnous, Miry Morass. . a wasteland, an investigation fails to show Russian pay-offs, new evidence here of to include thesis powerpoint Banks getting abt. $8,000 gratuity..pp 1295-1317. Chapter 65 , European Intrigue. . in which he and his wife became entangled in Central American canal intrigues, Mary interacts with the empress. pp 1318-38. . Rep., does better with pro-Fenian legislation and citizenship recognition abroad, plays role in Alabama claims settlements, pp 1339-69. Chapter 67 , Congressional Hardball. Antigone Fate. . Banks tries to control Reconstruction, loses key vote, opts for background and support of Reconstruction impeachment. . To Include Thesis. legislation, has big success with 8-hour workday, opposes Adm. Porter, supports women vote, Butler/Sumner harass him, p 1370-99. Chapter 68 , Helping a Few Friends. . and Panic of 1873 ruins his Kentucky railroad, but he aids Fremont, Sutro, etc.; then son Joseph runs off to West. pp 1400-33. Write Biology. Chapter 69 , Shifting Parties. . Banks reluctantly joins Liberal-Republicans, stumps for what to include in a thesis powerpoint, Greeley, loses his seat, becomes independent and. . lyceum lecturer, next season returns to short essay Congress for to include in a powerpoint, two terms, Republican again, whiffs of scandals end career..pp 1434-53. . Banks now U.S. 200 Words Essay About. marshal in Boston most of a decade, invests in Colorado mines, wins one final, lackluster term in.
. Congress, mind begins to fail as Alzheimer's takes hold, dies, information on family's later career. To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint. pp 1454-73. Appendix I - pages 1474-1480 - The Great Wagon Train Mystery.
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Introduction The purpose of this paper is to review the lessons learned from the research papers analysis of the Apple-Merging Technology, Business, and Entertainment case from Baltzan Phillps (2009). The analysis will reveal the impact iPod has made to the company, its competitors and the music industry. Apple transformed itself. Apple Inc. , Digital rights management , IPhone 2373 Words | 7 Pages. Asian Financial Crisis of what in a thesis 1997: Lessons Learned. The Asian financial crisis of 1997 provided some valuable lessons about the global financial systems. What are three of those . lessons ? Use references and examples in answering this question. Essay For Uc? The Asian financial crisis of powerpoint 1997 was a global phenomenon that acted as a fundamental learning curve for nation-states, graphic regions and write biology thesis, ultimately the global economy. This crisis became increasingly baneful as it caused widespread economic and to include in a powerpoint, social turmoil to several emerging market economies, and colleges, even. 1997 Asian Financial Crisis , Crisis , Currency 1622 Words | 5 Pages.
? 3 Life Lessons Although there are many reasons that our souls come to earth, one of the main . reasons I believe we come here is to learn a valuable lesson . If we did not learn this lesson through out a life time, our souls would come back to repeat the process. What To Include Powerpoint? I believe I have learned a few lessons from my time here on earth. Essay? One lesson I have learned is to never take things or people for granted. At some point in our lives, we realize that we take things for granted. 2006 albums , Knowledge , Learning 643 Words | 2 Pages. History the Right Lesson Is Never Learned. The Right Lesson Is Never Learned I believe history firmly shows that we (Humanity) do not learn from our mistakes.
Sure, . we’d like to think that with every mistake we learn a lesson that helps humanity move forward two steps toward a better world for all. However, history shows that is what to include in a thesis powerpoint, not the case. In fact, the only thing humanity seems to learn from our past mistakes is 200 words, how to reach our twisted goals with greater ease. We learned how to dominate, through imperialism, in a much more efficient. Cold War , Europe , Korean War 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Lesson Learned There comes a time in everyone's life when bad things happen that we wish had never occurred. . This experience, that result in to include powerpoint being punished or even disciplined by our parents, guardian, police or even by a teachers, often leads us to learn an quote from books in essay, important life lessons . Soon, we realize that we did something we know we should not have done. Growing up, I was always the kid who had to be punished; not because I was bad, but by what in a thesis, doing and saying stupid things, and by short, keeping the wrong. Debut albums , Fear , Punishment 569 Words | 2 Pages. Connor Spangenberg Professor Rosalsky English 221 09 July 2012 Lesson Learned In almost every literary work, there is a . To Include In A Thesis? lesson learned by quote books in essay, the narrator of the story through other characters and/or occurring events. Two short stories that have this happen are Lan Samantha Chang’s “Water Names” and Toni Cade Bambara’s “The Lesson .” In both of these stories, adults are teaching the lesson to the children. However, this lesson is taught in an entirely different approach in one story than it is to include thesis, in.
Education , Interrogative word , Lan Samantha Chang 644 Words | 2 Pages. ?A Lesson Learned In this essay I am going to be telling you about my personal experience on how I dated the wrong man I will be . telling about how I was introduced to books in essay him and what lead to what our relationship what went on biology in the relationship and to include in a thesis powerpoint, how I wasn’t aware of the wrong signs .What I did once I became aware that I was with the wrong man and how I got the antigone essay strength to get up and walk away with a clean slate and if I would have stayed my life would have been at risk .The summer of 2012 I attended. Learning , Love 726 Words | 2 Pages. The Lesson In “The Lesson ” by Toni Cade Bambara, the author writes about Sylvia’s childhood experience as a student. She is . a young-immature, uneducated, and naive kid who doesn’t know much about life , but her teacher tries to help her by giving her a lesson of reality as well to the rest of her students. She describes her teacher as a lady, Miss Moore, with “nappy hair,” “proper speech,” and what to include in a thesis powerpoint, “no makeup.” Sylvia explains how she feels when she goes to toy store in Fifth Avenue. For example.
Conflict , Life , Protagonist 1325 Words | 4 Pages. Lessons Learned From An Alcoholics Anonymous Meeting. the course of this meeting I was able to walk away with two valuable lessons . First, I learned that a person’s problems can have . serious repercussions on not only their lives, but all the family lives around them. To Include In A Thesis? Alcoholism being a prime example of this. Another little lesson that I was able to take away from this experience was just the short essay on pets realization that alcoholism and thesis, such problems happen to people from all different walks of life and how important it is quote from, that we treat all these people equally. What To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint? For.
Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism 1116 Words | 4 Pages. Bureau Of Labor Statistics, they define a logistician as one who “analyze and coordinate an organizations supply chain-the system that moves a product from . supplier to consumer” (March 29, 2012). In the logistician sense I am a mover and like to live my life to the fullest with set goals in mind. About Family? I enjoy my chosen occupation and have a strong work ethic to work with. 2. What To Include Thesis? I determine the logistician fits my sense in the reasoning that I am one who looks at the whole picture. I determine what is the purpose. Armed forces , Army , Bureau of 200 words family Labor Statistics 515 Words | 2 Pages. | |Social Studies . | | Lesson Plan | |For the Week of: February 25, 2013. Concept , Concept map , Culture 417 Words | 4 Pages. short story The Lesson tells the story of a young African-American girl named Sylvia and the important life . lesson that she learns one day while on to include powerpoint a trip to a toy store in New York. Antigone Fate Essay? Her neighbor, Miss Moore, brings Sylvia and a group of powerpoint her friends to F.A.O.
Schwarz and while there, they come face to face with the injustices they face because of their backgrounds. Miss Moore does this to teach them a lesson , one that she feels that they need to learn in order to succeed in life and overcome any. Economic inequality , Middle class , Social class 1388 Words | 4 Pages. The short story “The Lesson ” by Toni Cade Bambara is a story that brings to light the lesson of social standings in America. Essay On Pets? . It also shows you how one person can help change the to include in a powerpoint lives of the children in a community. The story is set in the slums of a larger city. The characters in this story are a group of young, uneducated children originally from the south.
The children are taken under wing by write biology thesis proposal, an older women with a higher education named Miss Moore. In the story Miss Moore takes the children. 175 , A Story , Money 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Through the clinical research of Dr. Martin Seligman, the concept of learned optimism was developed. Seligman explained that everyone may . experience some momentary feelings of in a thesis helplessness when encountering failing experiences. Seligman provides a systematic method to learned optimism that consists of recognizing and then disputing pessimistic thoughts.
This method is referred to as the ABCDE model. ABCDE are the first letters of the steps that teachers of optimism can take in helping others develop. Barry Wellman , Happiness , Martin Seligman 1369 Words | 4 Pages. The character that stands on antigone the most in the way they develop is Scout. In more ways than others she makes progress in her life to become a . To Include? mature woman. Although some people may disagree, Scout’s biggest changes that are made deal with how she looks at the world, and her attitude towards the antigone fate understanding of human behavior. Whether her development was based on lessons learned or any other factor she was the thesis character with the most change from the on pets beginning of the novel to the end. To start off. Better , Education , Girl 730 Words | 2 Pages. 24 students 50 minutes II.
RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND: The purpose of this lesson is for what to include in a thesis powerpoint, the students to read alternative sources about essay on pets, . What In A? Christopher Columbus and express their opinion about whether he should be celebrated. The students will read an article about Christopher Columbus and highlight in one color the positive influence of Columbus’s life and in fate essay another color the negative influence of Columbus’s life . What? Then, the anorexia research class will discuss the positives and negatives and the teacher will write. Assessment , Christopher Columbus , Columbus Day 964 Words | 4 Pages. organized. The paint signifies the to include in a thesis powerpoint women that Lionel is with, and fate essay, the brushes signify Lionel himself. The paints (women) are just tools to paint on his . To Include In A Thesis? canvas. The paints are all blurred together in essay about family order to thesis powerpoint show us that all of the women in Lionel’s life are blurred together- after he’s done using one, he can quickly move on to another one without much transition in quote between. The second iris effect is an in a, iris in, which we see as it circles Paulette’s ankle (class discussion). This iris effect is. 2000s music groups , Eye , Film editing 1048 Words | 3 Pages.
A lesson In life I had not once learned . valuable lessons in life . One of the life lessons that I learned is to be thankful and appreciate for write, those that around me. What In A Thesis? Maybe it is true that we do not appreciate what we had until we lost them and biology, there are moments in life that when you miss someone so much that you just want to pick them out from your dream and hug them. To Include? I did not experience these until my grandmother passed away. My. Crying , Debut albums , English-language films 731 Words | 2 Pages. Rupp Eng 101 October 16, 2013 The story “The Lesson ,” by short essay, Toni Cade Bambara, is about a young girl named Sylvia who is accompanied by a . Thesis? group of her friends from her neighborhood and her elderly neighbor named Ms. Moore, who tries to teach all of them a lesson about research papers, life . “The Lesson ” is a realistic story that takes place in the mid-20th century that exemplifies the true difference between upper and lower classes during that time period. In A Thesis? Although Sylvia might come off as a mean and cocky little. American novelists , Girl , Question 1135 Words | 3 Pages.
Ingle A.1 Amanda Ingle July 30, 2013 An Eye Opener in Life Last August I was in a bad motorcycle accident that has ultimately changed my . life . I had never been on a motorcycle before so a friend of mine asked if I wanted to take a ride on his with him. We rode through the country roads, and it was a thrilling experience! It started to get dark, so we had decided to 200 words essay family head on our way back home. Only going about fifty miles per hour, a fox appeared on our right and to include thesis, started running alongside of. 2008 singles , Blood , Debut albums 631 Words | 2 Pages.
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The Review of in a thesis English Studies Prize Essay : The Satanic ‘or’: Milton and Protestant Anti-Allegorism. Vladimir Brljak; The Review of research papers English Studies Prize Essay : The Satanic ‘or’: Milton and Protestant Anti-Allegorism, The Review of English Studies , Volume 66, Issue 275, 1 June 2015, Pages 403–422, https://doi.org/10.1093/res/hgv011. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. In an often quoted but imperfectly understood passage in John Milton’s Paradise Regain’d , Satan professes to doubt whether the kingdom portended for Christ is what to include in a, ‘Real or Allegoric’. This article takes this passage, the only instance of the term allegory in the whole of fate essay Milton’s poetry, as a starting point for a reconsideration of Milton’s attitude towards the complex and controversial theological, political, and aesthetic issues raised by this term in early modern Protestant culture. Specifically, the article examines the usage of the term in what thesis powerpoint Milton’s early prose writings and its abandonment from 1645 onwards; Milton’s familiarity with the disputes surrounding Galatians 4:24, a biblical verse of central importance in early modern treatments of the subject; and an overlooked tradition in Protestant commentary according to which allegorical reading was introduced into Christianity by Satan, in order to obscure the true meaning of scripture.
Having firmly aligned Milton with the anti-allegorical tendency in Protestant thought, the essay for uc colleges, discussion returns to Paradise Regain’d to to include in a demonstrate how this anti-allegorism informs a number of key passages in the poem, and briefly discusses its broader implications for the ongoing debates about the representational mode of Milton’s biblical epics. Towards the end of John Milton’s Paradise Regain’d , Satan claims that he has consulted the stars in order to foresee Christ’s future: ‘A Kingdom they portend thee’, he says, ‘but what Kingdom, / Real or Allegoric I discern not’ (4.389-90). 1 The lines go without substantial commentary in most editions of the poem and the overall import of the passage is clear enough: Satan either genuinely fails to comprehend the essay prompts for uc, true significance of the what in a thesis powerpoint, kingdom, or only pretends so in another futile effort to tempt Christ. The verses are of proposal interest, however, for being the only instance in the whole of Milton’s poetry where not only the concept of what might be called allegory is invoked, but where a form of the actual word, allegory , is what to include thesis, employed. What, if anything, is to be made of write biology proposal this? Is it significant that the single time Milton uses the term allegory in all of his literary work it is put into what to include in a thesis, the mouth of Satan—and if so, what is the significance? According to almost all previous commentary, the answer is ‘no’: Satan’s word choice is relatively unimportant and ‘Allegoric’ should here be taken in a broad sense indistinguishable from such neighbouring concepts as ‘figurative’ or ‘typological’, or perhaps simply as the opposite of ‘real’, i.e. ‘unreal’, ‘imaginary’.
The latter, for example, was the write proposal, view of what thesis powerpoint Northrop Frye—‘for Satan the material is real and the spiritual is imaginary or, as he says, “allegoric” ’—and is the gloss adopted in the Variorum : ‘ Allegoric . Figurative […] and hence unreal’. 2 But if nothing more is intended, then why choose this technical, confessionally-sensitive, and for uc, otherwise methodically-avoided term over various other unproblematic possibilities? More recently, the passage has been revisited by critics who approach Milton’s epics as fundamentally allegorical in character, and in a thesis powerpoint, who therefore have a particular interest in defusing its potentially unpleasant implications. Thus according to Mindele Anne Treip, in what remains the most extensive commentary on these verses, Satan uses the term ‘allegoric’ here partly in a general sense of ‘figurative’ or metaphorical, partly (with unconscious or ironic allusion to the Old Testament tradition of messianic prophecy) in the older theological sense of ‘typical’ (typological). […] What is most intriguing about Satan’s statement is its either/or aspect. If the kingdom is ‘real’ it cannot be figurative, and if it is figurative then it cannot be ‘real’; the two have to be mutually exclusive. Yet in traditional scriptural multi-layered reading and certainly in typological reading such was not the anorexia research, case.
The historical or ‘literal’ level of truth remained always perceived in the background, and in typology directly present. Powerpoint. Type and antitype are both historically real, while they both also participate in antigone essay a kind of to include in a mutual correspondence […]. Quote From Books. Both are ‘real’ and what powerpoint, simultaneously ‘allegoric’. 3. Satan is an allegorist, then, but he is a bad allegorist, and by ‘ironically expos[ing]’ his ‘narrow literal-mindedness’ Milton is instructing us how to approach allegorical literature correctly, including, supposedly, his own allegorical epics. Anticipated by in essay, mid-twentieth-century studies that had presented Satan as ‘the arch-literalist’ in the poem, Treip’s reading in turn anticipates later arguments along similar lines, for example by Judith H. Anderson, who also reads ‘Real or Allegoric’ as ‘yet another of Satan’s pernicious, simplistic binaries, […] equat[ing] allegory with abstraction, fable, and Idea alone, ignoring its defining doubleness’. 4 Such readings have an in a thesis powerpoint advantage over earlier ones in quote from books in essay foregrounding the potential interest in the use of ‘Allegoric’, but they still fail to account for what is, as shown below, a unique and deliberate usage of this theologically and politically-sensitive term. However attractive to some modern critics, the in a, idea of allegory as defined by anorexia, a non-reductive ‘doubleness’, or of the term being used interchangeably with figure or type , would have been deeply problematic to many seventeenth-century Protestant readers, and all the evidence suggests that Milton is to be counted among them, at least as far as the final 3 decades of thesis his career are concerned.
Against this prevailing opinion that the books in essay, usage in Paradise Regain’d is in a, either insignificant or reflects, through ironic contrast with Satan’s misuse of the term, Milton’s own predilection for allegory, I argue here that exactly the opposite is the from in essay, case—that the usage is significant, and that it is significant precisely because it reflects Milton’s hostility towards allegory. 5 In order to substantiate this reading, the article demonstrates Milton’s firm alignment with the anti-allegorical tendency in Protestant hermeneutics, including what might be called the what to include powerpoint, Satanic allegory topos—an overlooked tradition in Protestant commentary which specifically claims that allegorical reading is the work of Satan, who introduced it into Christian hermeneutics in order to obscure the true meaning of scripture. The passage in Paradise Regain’d draws on this tradition and there is much more to it than previous criticism has acknowledged: what we are meant to be witnessing here is the very birth of Christian allegoresis, the precise moment at which this method of anorexia interpretation, which would go on to have such a profound impact on in a thesis, the ensuing development of Christianity, and consequently the world at large, first emerges in history. The principal context for such an understanding of the passage is the tendency within Protestant hermeneutics to dismiss, at anorexia research, least nominally, allegorical interpretation of the Bible in favour of an approach which may be exemplified by Milton’s own opinion on the subject in De doctrina Christiana : ‘The sense of each scriptural passage is single; in the Old Testament, though, it is often a compound of the historical and typological’ ( OW 8: 389). 6 This is not to say that either the concept of allegorical reading, or even the in a powerpoint, term allegory itself, were necessarily anathema to every single Protestant commentator. In practice, things were rarely as simple as definitions like Milton’s made them seem, and Protestant interpreters often resorted to readings which can be plausibly described as allegorical, even when they preferred not to call them so, especially with those books of the Bible which were generally considered to be particularly esoteric in their mode of research expression. 7 Alternatively, one could still employ the term, provided certain restrictions or qualifications were clearly acknowledged: for example, on the condition that the ‘allegorical’ interpretation was proposed within the scriptural text itself, or that the ‘allegorical’ sense was defined as a subset or aspect of the one ‘literal’ sense rather than a separate sense in what thesis its own right, or that it was not understood as the actual meaning of a scriptural text but merely its homiletic application—or any combination of these and thesis proposal, still other available loopholes, most of which had been around in various permutations since medieval or even early patristic times. 8. In theory, however, the distinction was for the most part clear: unlike typology, allegory presumes multiple senses, and to include in a thesis, thus denies, or is felt to deny, the essay on pets, historical reality of the persons and events signified by the principal or literal sense, replacing the true meaning of scripture by man-made fabrications. Thesis Powerpoint. By contrast, mainstream Protestantism taught that the scripture has only biology proposal, a single, literal or historical sense, although the characters and events thereby signified may, especially in thesis the Old Testament, prefigure those of a later time.
Indeed, the fact that in actual practice the write biology proposal, difference between allegory , type , mystery , and other related terms, was often blurred probably only encouraged a ‘narcissism of small differences’, making such theoretical and terminological distinctions vital to the construction and what powerpoint, preservation of confessional identities. As a result, allegory became—again, not universally and unequivocally, but to a considerable degree nevertheless—a branded word and a focus of essay on pets extensive, complex, and often acrimonious debate. The contradictions and vacillations inherent in the Protestant position in this debate may be illustrated by the use of allegory and its derivatives in Milton’s own prose writings of the early 1640s. Even at what in a powerpoint, this date the term is from books, rarely used: only what to include in a thesis powerpoint, seven instances are found, 9 of which two are irrelevant here, as he term is employed in antigone fate a purely literary or rhetorical sense. What To Include Powerpoint. This is the case with one of the three instances in passages added to essay about the 1644 edition of The Doctrine and what powerpoint, Discipline of Divorce ( YP 2: 223) and the single instance in De doctrina , occurring in the following caveat in the chapter on essay about family, predestination: ‘of assignment to life—if one must rely on metaphors and allegories in to include powerpoint so contentious a matter—frequent mention is made, and short on pets, of the book of life, but none anywhere of the book of death’ ( OW 8: 25-6). This has been cited as evidence of Milton’s acceptance of what to include thesis powerpoint scriptural allegoresis, 10 yet on closer inspection the passages in question are all revealed to quote be instances of the metaphor of the book of life and other variations on ‘this figure of writing’.
Indeed, the disclaimer is prompted by Milton’s own use of what to include such a metaphor (echoing Isaiah 4:3), for 200 words essay ‘assignment to to include thesis powerpoint life’ is really ‘ascriptione […] ad vitam’. 11 In other words, the term allegory is meant here in the rhetorical rather than the hermeneutical sense: an extension of the simple metaphor of the ‘book of life’ (e.g. Philippians 4:3) into a series of books related metaphors (e.g. Psalms 69:28). There are thus, in addition to Paradise Regain’d , five relevant instances of the word ‘allegory’ in what to include thesis the whole of Milton’s work: one in the 1641 Animadversions , one in the 1642 Reason of Church-Government , two in the 1644 Doctrine and Discipline , and one in the 1645 Colasterion . Each of quote from books these displays a different facet of Milton’s engagement with the term and its various aspects and what in a powerpoint, connotations. As already noted above (n. 5), the instance in Animadversions relates to Revelation—‘the whole Booke’, Milton writes, ‘soares to write biology proposal a Prophetick pitch in types, and Allegories’ ( YP 1: 714)—and must be approached with an awareness of the exceptionally esoteric status accorded to this text, even in Protestant commentary. In Church-Government we find him distinguishing between an authentic and an inauthentic allegorical interpretation, as he sees them, ridiculing his opponents for attempting ‘to straine us a certaine figurative Prelat, by wringing the collective allegory of those seven Angels into seven single Rochets’ ( YP 1: 778, see note).
In Doctrine and Discipline he similarly engages with a previous allegorical reading by Philo, this time implying an understanding of what to include thesis allegory as a homiletic application of scripture rather than its actual meaning—apparently Philo’s interpretation is not so much wrong, as Milton’s is ‘haply more significant’ ( YP 2: 288). 12 The other instance in the same work is of interest for designating as ‘allegorick’ not passages of scripture, or any other text, but what he terms ‘precepts of beneficence fetcht out antigone essay, of the closet of nature’ ( YP 2: 273). Of particular significance is the instance in the Colasterion , where Milton is responding to criticism and to include powerpoint, is therefore particularly explicit about his methodology and its underlying premises. Antigone Fate. The obviously opportunistic interpretation in powerpoint question, turning two agricultural precepts at Deuteronomy 22:9-10 into precepts against joining incompatible personalities in marriage, was first proposed in Doctrine and Discipline , where it is not called allegorical ( YP 2: 270). 200 Words Family. It was then challenged in some detail in the anonymous Answer to Milton’s treatise, and to include thesis powerpoint, it is in about family responding to this rebuttal in the Colasterion that he refers to the Deuteronomy verses as ‘ allegorical ’ ( YP 2: 751). 13 On both occasions he goes to great lengths to maintain that he is following the best Protestant practice in what to include thesis discerning such a meaning: he is not acting on his own impulse, twisting an allegory out of an otherwise intelligible passage to suit his polemical interests, and he is not discerning this allegory by his own fallible intellect but is merely clarifying what is already suggested elsewhere in the scripture. Be that as it may, it is to be strongly emphasized that the chief relevance of all this in approaching Satan’s ‘Real or Allegoric’ in Paradise Regain’d lies in its irrelevance. At most, these examples show that early in his career Milton occasionally used the term in his non-literary work, in senses which range from the purely rhetorical or literary to those displaying a keen awareness of the essay prompts colleges, strictures placed on figurative interpretation in what to include in a Protestant hermeneutics.
None of this, however, to go back to quote from books Flannagan’s comment, can be taken to exemplify his ‘customary’ use of the term. Rather, what is customary, especially in the last three decades of Milton’s career, is precisely the term’s disuse. Even though the what thesis, writings from this period account for the majority of hermeneutic terminology found in Milton’s work, the word allegory virtually disappears from his vocabulary. The five relevant instances of allegory are put into essay, perspective by what to include thesis powerpoint, over a hundred instances of comparable terminology elsewhere in the prose, notably in books in essay De doctrina . 14 In the poetry, the widest range of what in a thesis such terminology is found in Paradise Lost : we hear of books ‘types’, ‘shadowes’, and to include in a thesis powerpoint, ‘shadowie Types’ (1.405, 12.232-3, 303), of quote books in essay things ‘mysteriously […] meant’ or presented ‘in mysterious terms’ (3.516, 10.173), of what to include in a thesis events ‘foretold’ and ‘Oracle[s] […] verifi’d’ (10.182, 191), of actions undertaken ‘in figure’ (12.241) of those to come, of accounts related ‘By lik’ning spiritual to anorexia research corporal forms’ (5.573), of understandings passing ‘from Flesh to Spirit’ (12.303), of what to include in a texts ‘not but by the Spirit understood’ (12.514)—but not of allegory . Except in Paradise Regain’d , Milton never used the term in its hermeneutical sense after 1645. Books. 15 Adapting a passage in Wolleb where allegoria is listed among the types of figurative language that cannot be charged with falsehood, he removes it from the list. 16 The simplest explanation for all this is that he came to view the term as controversial and joined many of his fellow Protestants in using it sparely or abandoning it altogether. Just how controversial the term could be is thesis powerpoint, vividly illustrated by an event from December 1655, when an Englishman was sent to prison for essay believing that the Bible was to what to include thesis powerpoint be read allegorically.
Admittedly, this particular Englishman, the itinerant nonconformist preacher Richard Coppin, harboured many other curious beliefs and had been preaching about them for several months in Kent before he was finally examined, found guilty of breaching the 1650 Blasphemy Act, and on pets, sentenced to six months’ imprisonment. 17 Besides believing that the Bible was an in a thesis allegory, Coppin also believed that there was no local heaven or hell, that baptism, good and bad deeds were all equally irrelevant to salvation, that God will destroy the sin but not the sinner, and ultimately, “ That all mankind, Jew or Gentile, and what ever they are, how ever they live, or dye, shall be saved ”. 18 But if these sound like far graver blasphemies than Coppin’s hermeneutics, they are often premised precisely on his allegorical readings of scripture, and essay prompts for uc colleges, it is no coincidence that of the twenty-five articles of what powerpoint his arraignment, it is the essay, very first that reads: ‘ That all the Scriptures is but an Allegory, that is all, said he, both Law and Gospel, and in a thesis powerpoint, that it is nothing but an Allegory, said he, it is clear from Gal.4.24.’ 19. Coppin’s position was undoubtedly radical, yet it is still instructive in essay about several ways: it shows that the question of scriptural allegoresis was not merely a theological but also a deeply political and in a, even, in such extreme circumstances, legal matter; it reminds us that scriptural allegoresis was not, in Protestant eyes, associated exclusively with Papist but also with nonconformist heresy; finally, it exemplifies the central importance of the scriptural passage to which Coppin appealed, Galatians 4:24. The reason why the passage was so important is simple: it contained the only use of a form of the word allegory in the whole of the Bible. At this place in the epistle, Paul not only gives an arguably allegorical interpretation of the account of essay Abraham’s sons in the Book of Genesis, but explicitly calls it ‘allegorical’: ‘????? ????? ?????????????’, ‘all of which is spoken allegorically’, which had for centuries been rendered by the Vulgate as ‘Quae sunt per allegoriam dicta’, ‘Which things are said by an allegory’, a reading effectively reaffirmed by Erasmus’s translation of 1516, ‘qu? p[er] allegoria[m] dicunt[ur]’. 20 As might be expected, Roman Catholics and nonconformists like Coppin cited this place in support of their allegorical interpretations, while their claims were wholly or partially disputed by their Protestant opponents. 21. Graphic testimony to in a thesis these disputes is found in the early English translations of the verse (Table 1). Research Papers. In spite of the what in a powerpoint, fact that some form of the English word allegory was the obvious choice for rendering Paul’s ?????????????, and that both the Vulgate and Erasmus rendered it by the Latin allegoria , Tyndale and Coverdale refuse to let this word into their renditions, translating, respectively, ‘Which thing[es] betoken mistery’ and ‘These wordes betoken somwhat’. 22 Tyndale’s version survived when his text of the research, New Testament was included in the 1537 Matthew Bible and the Tyndale-Erasmus diglot edition of to include thesis powerpoint 1538, the latter affording a particularly explicit instance of the conflict, with Tyndale’s English, ‘Whiche thynges betoken mistery’, directly facing Erasmus’s Latin, ‘que per allegoriam dicuntur’. A change occurs, however, in another diglot edition of the same year, printing a new translation by Coverdale parallel with the Vulgate, in in essay which this verse is revised to include, for the first time in an English version, the word allegory : ‘[the] which thynges are spoken by an allegory’.
This reading is to include thesis, then retained in Taverner’s Bible, the anorexia papers, Great Bible, and the Bishops’ Bible, and is repeated in substance in to include in a the King James Bible. Some early English versions of Gal. 4:24, divided into those which avoid and anorexia research, those which employ the term ‘allegory’. The editions cited, in chronological order, are The New Testament: A Facsimile of the 1526 Edition , tr. W. Tyndale, intro. D. Daniell (London, 2008); Biblia. To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint. The Bible that is, the holy Scripture … ([Antwerp], 1535); The Byble which is all the holy Scripture … ([Antwerp], 1537); The newe Testament in Englyshe in Latin … (London, 1538); The newe testament both Latine and Englyshe … (Southwark, 1538); The Most Sacred Bible … (London, 1539); The Byble in quote books in essay Englyshe … ([London], 1539); The Byble, that is to say all the holy Scripture … (London, 1549); The seconde tome or volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the to include in a powerpoint, newe testament … , [tr. Essay Prompts Colleges. M. Coverdale and J. Olde] (London, 1549); The Nevve Testament of Ovr Lord Iesus Christ … (Geneva, 1557); The Bible and Holy Scriptvres Conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament (Geneva, 1560); The holie Bible (London, ); The Nevv Testament of to include in a thesis powerpoint Ovr Lord Iesvs Christ Translated ovt of Greeke by Theod. Beza … , tr. L. Tomson (London, 1576); The Nevv Testament of Iesvs Christ … (Rheims, 1582); The Holy Bible … (London, 1611); Giovanni Diodati, Piovs Annotations Vpon the Holy Bible … (London, 1644); Meric Casaubon et al. Prompts For Uc. , Annotations Upon all the what in a, Books of the Old and New Testament … (London, 1645); The Dutch Annotations Upon the whole Bible … , tr.
T. Haak (London, 1657). The Great Bible continued to essay be printed in the reign of Edward VI, alongside further allegory-free renditions of the Galatians verse. The so-called Becke’s Bibles—revisions of the Matthew and Taverner versions produced between 1549 and 1551, apparently by the staunchly Protestant Edmund Becke—revert back to Tyndale’s version. What To Include In A Thesis. Around 1552, Richard Jugge’s revision of Tyndale’s New Testament contains another juxtaposition of the variants: the biology proposal, text is still Tyndale’s, ‘Which thynges betoken mystery’, but a marginal note adds that ‘Some read: whiche thinges are spoken in an allegorye’. 23 In 1557, the translation of William Whittingham, a Marian exile in Geneva, gives ‘By the which thinges another thing is me[n]t’, a rendering adopted three years later in the Geneva Bible, as well as in Laurence Tomson’s 1576 English translation of Theodore Beza’s Latin version of 1565. Predictably, the Rheims New Testament of 1582 responds to Geneva’s provocation not only by translating allegory but also appending a note adducing the passage as scriptural warrant for allegorical reading. Equally predictably, this note receives an extensive rebuttal by what to include in a thesis powerpoint, Fulke, who allows the story of Abraham’s sons a typological significance—it is ‘a figure or paterne of the Church to come’—but insists that the about, passage in no way presents a warrant ‘to draw the Scriptures from the sense of the what thesis powerpoint, wordes which you call the literall sense, to any allegoricall interpretation, which is fayned and counterfected in mans brayne, and hath no ground of the spirit of God’. 24 Fulke’s moderate position seems typical of many Church of write England divines: he follows the reading of the Bishops’ Bible and takes no quarrel with the what to include thesis, use of the term as such, yet insists that ‘the Apostle in this place vsing the terme of allegory, meaneth no such descanting vpon the Scripture’ as Catholic interpreters indulge in, that ‘prefigurations differ much from allegoricall interpretation’, and fate essay, that even ‘if we should admit that the apostle, who was certeine of the sense of the Holy ghost, did make an allegorical interpretation, yet it is not lawfull for euery man’, who ‘hath no such assurance’, to do so.
There can be no doubt that Milton was aware of these variant readings and what in a, the disputes they reflected. Not only from, were they present in the two major vernacular versions, the Geneva and the King James Version, 25 but also in Latin and polyglot editions, including the version of the New Testament that Hale and Cullington ( OW 8: xlvii-li) identify as the one principally consulted by Milton in composing De doctrina , namely Beza’s, in the Geneva edition of to include thesis powerpoint 1598, printing the Greek, the Vulgate, and Beza’s own Latin translation in parallel columns, with Erasmus’s translation sometimes supplied in the notes. Against all these, Beza’s translation of Galatians 4:24 still reads, as it did in the original edition of 1556, ‘Per qu? aliud figuratur’. 26 The 1598 edition also contains features that would have lent further prominence to the passage, including additions to write thesis the already extensive commentary on the verse, and even a schematic representation of Beza’s clarification of what to include powerpoint Paul’s ‘allegory’ (Figure 1). Beza’s schematic representation of Paul’s interpretation in the 1598 edition; reproduced by the kind permission of the Syndics of quote from books Cambridge University Library. Similar schemes are given for only two other passages, Rom. 7:1-6 and 2 Cor.
5:1-10; cf. What To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint. Jan Krans, Beyond What Is Written: Erasmus and papers, Beza as Conjectural Critics of the what to include in a thesis, New Testament (Leiden, 2006), 279. Beza’s schematic representation of antigone fate Paul’s interpretation in the 1598 edition; reproduced by powerpoint, the kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library. Similar schemes are given for prompts for uc colleges only two other passages, Rom. 7:1-6 and 2 Cor.
5:1-10; cf. Jan Krans, Beyond What Is Written: Erasmus and Beza as Conjectural Critics of the to include in a thesis powerpoint, New Testament (Leiden, 2006), 279. What did Milton make of all this? The banishment of the word allegory from his post-1645 vocabulary gives us one clue and further evidence is found between the lines of a quotation of Galatians 4:24 he gives in De doctrina . Discussing the abolishment of the old law, Milton gathers a number of proof texts, including Galatians, v. 24, about Hagar and Sarah: these women are those two covenants: […] Hagar […] producing offspring for slavery ; the other , v. 26, […] is free ; hence v. 30: cast out the slave-girl and her son, for for uc colleges in no way shall the slave-girl’s son be an heir with the freewoman’s son ( OW 8: 320). 27.
Obviously the quotation is what in a thesis, highly elliptical, as are most of the thousands of biblical references and quotations which make up for half of the text of De doctrina . On closer view, however, there are strong indications of 200 words family a particular logic behind the truncations that cannot be wholly ascribed to economy. Not only to include in a thesis powerpoint, does Milton fail to fate cite the beginning of 4:24, containing the troublesome hapax , but he avoids using any hermeneutical terminology on his own part, limiting himself to the utterly indifferent ‘about’ and ‘hence’, and letting the whole weight of the interpretation to fall on Paul’s seemingly innocuous but in fact highly significant ‘ are ’. The significance of this ‘ are ’ becomes clearer in the light of Milton’s discussion of sacramental language in thesis the following chapter of the essay, treatise. The discussion is occasioned by the treatment of the Lord’s Supper, which inevitably revolves around the interpretation of the words attributed to to include in a thesis powerpoint Christ in essay prompts for uc colleges the Synoptic Gospels and 1 Corinthians 11:24-5, notably the key phrase, ‘this is my body’. In keeping with Reformed orthodoxy, and drawing on Wolleb, Milton argues that these words and what to include thesis powerpoint, similar sacramental expressions elsewhere in the Bible are to 200 words family be taken figuratively, and vehemently dismisses the what in a thesis, doctrines of transubstantiation and consubstantiation ( OW 8: 354). However, he also steers clear of the other extreme—that sacramental expressions are merely figurative—arguing that they employ a special mode of figuration not encountered in research other types of discourse. 28 Specifically, sacramental figuration is the same in what to include thesis powerpoint kind as that employed in other contexts, but not in degree: ‘in the case of the sacraments, […] the relation between signifier and the thing signified is very close [ summa ]’, and about family, sometimes even closer, for ‘it seems the biblical writers used this manner of speaking to signify not only a very close [ summam ] correspondence between signifiers and the things signified, but also an absolutely sure sealing of spiritual things [ certissimam rerum spiritualium obsignationem ]’ ( OW 8: 354-6). This and other finer points in to include Milton’s treatment of the sacraments are beyond the scope of the present study, but the remainder of this passage is of direct relevance to the truncated quotation from about, Galatians. ‘Hence’, he continues, the same way of speaking has also been transferred to the signifying of all other absolutely sure things [ res certissimas ]: Gen. 41: 27: the what in a, seven cows […] are seven years … ; Rev. Essay Prompts. 1: 20, and 17: 9: the seven heads are seven mountains ; and v. 12: the ten horns […] are ten kings . While the preceding examples all relate to covenants and sacraments, these do not.
Rather, they resemble sacramental expressions in being instances of esoteric figurative interpretations or analogies found within the biblical text itself, explicitly adduced through the use of the copulative verb—exactly what we find at Galatians 4:24. 29 In other words, the introduction of this terminology, which is Milton’s own intervention into his principal source in Wolleb, would seem to present yet another Protestant strategy to ‘rebrand’ traditional modes of esoteric hermeneutics, including those which could be plausibly described as allegorical. A closer look at Milton’s sources here seems to in a thesis support such a reading. The last quoted passage from De doctrina rewrites the from in essay, following one in in a powerpoint the Wolleb’s Compendium : Yea, the very same is seen in other speeches besides sacramental; as Gen. 41. 37.
The seven cows , are seven years ; that is, types and anorexia papers, figures [ typi figur? ] of seven years: Rev. 17. 9. The seven heads , are seven hills ; and v. 12. The ten horns are ten Kings . What. 30. Milton keeps the examples but removes the phrase ‘other speeches besides sacramental’ and essay, the reference to the contents of the what in a, pharaoh’s dream as ‘types and biology proposal, figures’, presumably because he find such usage erroneous: types are historical figures and events and not elements in to include in a powerpoint dreams or visions. Quote Books In Essay. But if these are neither sacraments, nor seals, nor types, nor figures, nor allegories—and note here that at an earlier period Milton was not averse, as he now seems to what to include be, to employing the essay, latter term with regard to Revelation—then what are they? They are res certissimae , and vague as that may be, it does the job of avoiding the controversial term allegory , while at the same time foregrounding the divine assurance for the interpretations adduced in such passages. Furthermore, there were various sources where Milton could have found the notions of sacramental language and to include thesis powerpoint, the sacramental copula related directly to Galatians 4:24. The search for expressions comparable to prompts ‘this is what thesis powerpoint, my body’ began in the early days of the eucharistic controversy, and at thesis proposal, some point the Galatians verse began to be cited in this context.
31 Eventually, through this association, the converse also began to what to include in a apply: not only was Galatians 4:24 used in illustrating sacramental language, but the notion of sacramental language became a gloss for antigone Galatians 4:24. Milton would have seen the verse glossed in similar terms by Beza—who does, however, instruct the reader to distinguish between ‘sacramental’ and ‘typical’ signification—and possibly elsewhere as well. 32 Although not mentioned among Milton’s examples of to include in a thesis ‘absolutely true things’, the verse clearly falls under this category, and if this is the thinking he brought to bear on it when quoting it in De doctrina , it makes perfect sense that he would skip the opening words and proceed directly to the part containing the biology proposal, ‘sacramental’ or ‘absolutely sure’ copula. In summary, Milton’s quotation of Galatians 4:24-25 seems carefully designed to elide the controversies that had accumulated around the passage, and thus testifies, albeit in negative form, to Milton’s familiarity with these controversies, which would have been very prominently brought to his attention when he looked up this passage in the two principal Bible texts that he used, and any other versions or commentaries he might have consulted. That Milton would choose to pass over these disputes here is not surprising: a work aimed, in his view, at further consolidation of orthodox Protestant doctrine rather than polemic with ‘the Pontificians’ ( OW 8: 3-4) was not the place for a judicious treatment of thesis such a difficult and contentious yet ultimately non-doctrinal matter.
Finally, it is important to keep in mind that Milton considered the essay about, text of the New Testament to what thesis be highly ‘corrupt’ and that he might have, as he did in several other cases ( OW 8: 59-60, 73, 109-10, 396-8), questioned the authenticity of the unique use of ????????????? at Galatians 4:24. If he also took the trouble of antigone fate essay consulting the verse in Brian Walton’s Biblia Sacra Polyglotta , he would have found additional motive for what such suspicion. 33 Walton’s polyglot gives nine texts here: the Greek, the Vulgate, the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Ethiopic, with all the non-Latin texts accompanied by Latin translations. The Latin versions of the beginning words of Galatians 4:24 offer a predictably inconclusive array of readings: ‘Qu? sunt allegorizata ’ (from the Greek) and prompts colleges, ‘H?c autem sunt allegori?’ (from the what to include thesis powerpoint, Syriac) vs. ‘H? autem du? sensum habent cujus narratio ineffabilis est’ (from the Arabic). Most interestingly, however, the translation from the quote books in essay, Ethiopic gives nothing, jumping from its rendering of the final words of 4:23, ‘ qu? e libera secundum promissionem’, directly to ‘Et h?c sunt duo testamenta’, and thus omitting any text corresponding to the disputed words in the Greek. One can only speculate, but Milton’s decision not to what to include in a thesis powerpoint quote the part of 4:24 that is (to the best of his knowledge) lacking in at least one version of great antiquity and authority, is translated with significant variations here and in essay on pets other renditions, and contains, in the ‘corrupt’ Greek, a very important hapax legomenon , seems entirely compatible with, and may be indicative of, his doubts about its authenticity. 34.
There is, however, a further and compelling reason to believe that this is the context in which Satan’s ‘Allegoric’ is to be taken, namely the term’s long-standing association with the devil in Protestant commentary. The tradition apparently begins with Luther, who condemns ‘the satanic madness and in a powerpoint, illusion’ of antigone fate essay allegorical reading, and thesis, refers specifically to Roman Catholic allegories as ‘thought out and devised, not by the Holy Spirit but by the devil’. 35 Possibly picking up on these statements, Calvin develops the sentiment into an actual theory of allegory’s satanic origins: Without doubt, this was the inuention of satha[n] to abase the authoritie of the scriptures, to take away the true vse fro[m] the reading thereof. which prophanation God hath reuenged with iust iudgeme[n]t, in that he hath suffred the puritie of vnderstanding to bee oduerwhelmed with the bastard counterfeit gloses. 36. The idea is write, reiterated in Calvin’s sermons on Galatians and more explicitly in his commentary on Genesis: ‘the Allegories of Origen , and of such like are to be reiected: whiche Sathan by his most pestilent subtiltie went about to bring into the Churche, that the doctrine of the in a thesis, Scripture might be doubtfull, and voyde of certeintie’. 37. The same notion appears in Beza’s 1554 De haereticis a ciuili magistratu puniendis , in a passage cited by Thomas Edwards in 1647: For this was the speciall subtiltie of Sathan of old, which yet not one almost of the antigone essay, ancient Fathers observed, that when he could not cast the Scripture out of the Church wholly, yet by vaine Allegories, he made the whole Scripture unprofitable and fabulous, so as truely there was not one piece of Scripture left free of being contaminated with these Allegories. To Include In A. 38. In the epistle to the 1565 edition of 200 words about family his New Testament, translated into English in 1576, Beza similarly recounts how in the age of the early church fathers ‘Satan layed […] in the countrie of Grecia ’ various ‘mischiefs’, of which ‘two […] especially reigned in those dayes’.
39 One was the tendency to fuse Christian teaching with pagan philosophy, yet. The other mischief was farre worse, for as an vnauoydable disease, it had almost possessed all mens mindes, and it was this, a maruelous desire that men had to misshape the whole Scripture, and turne it into allegories wherein euery man tooke so great pleasure without measure or compasse, that eche man thought he might do what he woulde. The idea also appears in original seventeenth-century English texts. What Thesis. In an anonymous pamphlet from 1650, the author ascribes the departures from the faith he perceives in his times to, among other things, the ‘affectate desire we have (more consulting with Satan, then the 200 words essay family, Scripture) to turn plain truths […] into confused Allegories’. 40 ‘Souls’, he admonishes his contemporaries, ‘have you not learned this yet, that tis Satans policy, chiefly this way, either to to include in a thesis divert our hearts from, or darken our understandings in the eying any solid eminent truth, lest when the snare is discovered we escape’.
According to another, similarly-titled pamphlet from 1655, Satan encourages men ‘to put allegorical and prompts for uc colleges, mystical (as they call them) Interpretations upon prophetical, and Doctrinal Scriptures […] so they will make of what to include in a it what they please’. 41 As late as 1696, an anti-Quaker tract claims that it was ‘the Grand Design of him who first Inspired and Possessed them [i.e. the Quakers], to Destroy the only Saving Faith , in the Satisfaction made by Christ for our Sins , by write biology thesis proposal, turning all this to a meer Allegory ’. 42. A particularly elaborate account appears in what to include in a thesis powerpoint Richard Gilpin’s 1677 D?monologia sacra , explaining at length how Satan ‘befools men into a belief, that the Scriptures do under the Vail of their Words and Sentences, contain some hidden Notions , that are of 200 words family purpose so disguised, that they may be locked up from the what powerpoint, generality of Men’. Antigone Fate Essay. 43 There are various degrees of such satanic hermeneutics, depending on to include in a thesis, whether it departs wholly or only partly from the plain sense of the biblical text. The latter is the case with what Gilpin specifically terms ‘ Allegorical reflections or allusions’, an approach which ‘supposeth the Letter of Scripture to be true , (but still as no better than the first Rudiments to train up Beginners withal)’.
However, ‘the crafty Adversary at last enticeth’ allegorical readers. to let go of the History , as if it were nothing but a Parable , not really acted, but only fitted to represent Notions to quote books in essay us. Allegories were a Trap which the Devil had for the Jews , and wherein they wonderfully pleased themselves. How much Origen abused himself and the Scriptures by this humour is to include in a thesis, known to many; and how the Devil hath prevailed generally by it upon giddy people in later times, I need not tell you. Gilpin also takes note of Galatians 4:24—‘The pretence that Satan hath for this dealing is raised from some passages of the antigone fate, New Testament , wherein […] some things are expressly called Allegories ’—but denies that the passage justifies ‘any Mans boldne[ss] in presuming to do the to include in a powerpoint, like to quote any other passage of Scripture’. Finally, there is a passage in Milton’s own Of Reformation which all but explicitly reiterates the notion. Responding to the claim that the scripture is too difficult to understand without the guidance of the church fathers, Milton concedes that ‘there be some Books, and to include in a thesis powerpoint, especially some places in those Books that remain clouded’, yet ‘Hence to antigone inferre a generall obscurity over all the text, is a meer suggestion of the Devil to disswade men from to include in a thesis powerpoint, reading it, and casts an aspersion of dishonour both upon the mercy , truth , and anorexia research, wisedome of God ’ ( YP 1: 566). What In A Powerpoint. 44 Allegory is not explicitly mentioned but it can probably be taken for granted that this imagined ‘obscurity’ includes such ‘wrung’ allegorical readings as he criticizes in essay colleges The Reason of Church-Government . At this point Milton still occasionally used the term in positive contexts, so his unwillingness to attribute it unreservedly to the devil is not surprising.
Even so, the passage testifies to his early familiarity with the what in a, tradition that he would later exploit, with explicit reference to allegory, in Paradise Regain’d . If we now return to essay family the portrayal of Satan in Paradise Regain’d , parallels should be quite obvious, even beyond the ‘Real or Allegoric’ passage. Indeed, allegory is in a powerpoint, just one of the anorexia research papers, various forms of esoteric semiosis—‘presages and signs, / And answers, oracles, portents and dreams’ (1.394-5)—which are Satan’s province both by his own account and by Christ’s disparaging response to his claims: These are all qualities that could with equal propriety be ascribed to allegory, and in fact we find a remark in De doctrina which directly parallels these verses even as it makes an analogy between oracular and what to include in a thesis, scriptural divination: ‘a principle article of faith […] ought not to be dug out of ambiguities, or else obscurities—like the fate essay, Delphic oracle’s answers [ ex ambiguis aut obscuris quasi pythia responsa ]’ ( OW 8: 75). Satan’s hermeneutic prowess fails him, however, when he attempts to in a powerpoint divine the meaning of the events that transpired at Christ’s baptism. As he relates to his ‘gloomy Consistory’ (1.42)—a glaring anti-Catholic allusion, paralleling the infernal ‘conclave’ in Paradise Lost (1.795)—he saw ‘Heav’n above the Clouds / Unfold her Crystal Dores’, and ‘thence on his head / A perfect Dove descended, what e’re it meant’ (1.81-83). In other words, the one thing that Satan is unable to interpret is precisely that which is the ground of all valid interpretations—a point repeatedly emphasized by Protestant commentators and further underscored by Christ’s account of the same event later in the poem (1.282), to whom, of course, as to all of the poem’s readers, the meaning of the dove is perfectly clear. The second time Satan mentions the write biology, baptism, his language is even more symptomatic. Here he tells Christ that he has kept an eye on him ever since his infancy, but especially since he heard the voice from heaven proclaiming him the son of God:
Again Satan is unable to comprehend a central tenet of the to include powerpoint, Christian faith, and again the terminology is technical and topical with satirical and quote from books, indeed comic effect, as the ‘single sence’ of scripture is precisely the central premise of Protestant hermeneutics: ‘Not only sola scriptura , […] but alongside it an equally significant principle, solus sensus litteralis .’ 46 Satan has already attempted to turn Christ from the to include in a powerpoint, principle of sola scriptura (‘All knowledge is not couch’t in Moses law / The Pentateuch or what the prophets wrote’ [4.225-6]), and now he attempts the same with that of solus sensus litteralis —precisely the two greatest ‘mischiefs’ that Beza attributed to Satan’s influence on early Christian thought. The conflict these passages imply is not, then, between literal and figurative reading, but between two incompatible approaches to the latter: the either/or of allegory, represented by Satan, and short essay on pets, the both/and of typology, represented by Christ. We hear of Christ’s invention of typological reading from his own mouth: having learned from his mother of the miraculous circumstances of to include thesis powerpoint his conception and for uc, the events and omens that transpired at his birth, Yet like most heavenly things, this too has its infernal counterpart. Christ is not the what in a powerpoint, only creative reader of prompts scripture in Paradise Regain’d . To Include In A. Indeed, in discussing the ‘Real or Allegoric’ passage it is easy to overlook one simple fact, namely that prior to Satan saying these words Christian allegory is not yet in quote from existence. What To Include Thesis. Whatever Milton otherwise thought of it, the apostle’s use of ????????????? in the Epistle to the Galatians is here irrelevant, for the Epistle to the Galatians has not yet been written. There are no apostles, no epistles, no canon of specifically Christian writings, no specifically Christian hermeneutics—all of that, except for papers Christ’s own insights, is yet to come.
There is, however, and there had been for many centuries, allegory and allegorical reading, by means of which the to include in a thesis powerpoint, pagans had attempted to essay make sense of their mythology. And now the devil, with whom this false mythology itself originates, attempts this pagan method on a fundamental tenet of the emergent Christian faith in another vain effort to shake Christ’s conviction of the prophecy. This, I think, is what thesis, what Milton, drawing on antigone essay, an old tradition in in a Protestant polemics, intends us to see in this passage: a condensed etiological myth with strong satirical overtones about the invention of Christian allegoresis. Satan is the first Christian allegorist. With him emerges, at this very moment, the pernicious method of interpretation that many centuries later Reformers like himself would set out to anorexia research combat. Finally, there is the question of the implications of in a thesis all this for anorexia the broader debates regarding the what thesis, representational mode of Milton epics, especially Paradise Lost . Almost seventy years have passed since A. J. A. Waldock observed that critics of Paradise Lost ‘differ not only in their approach to the poem, in their feeling about about family it, in their judgment of to include in a thesis it: they differ also in their understanding of what occurs in it’. Fate Essay. 48 On many counts the scholarship of the intervening decades supersedes that of Waldock’s day, but if it gives us a better idea of what is at stake in this critical impasse, it still offers no definitive or even broadly accepted solution for overcoming it. One thing that is certain, however, and to include powerpoint, is perhaps still not sufficiently acknowledged, is that any such solution will need to quote from books address the status of allegorical representation in Milton’s biblical epics. What In A Thesis. Indeed, the abiding problem of what occurs or does not occur in Paradise Lost and Paradise Regain’d largely is the problem of whether their representational mode is to be understood as thoroughly allegorical, thoroughly non- or even anti-allegorical, or suspended, consciously or unconsciously, coherently or incoherently, between these two opposing poles—positions which are not merely theoretical but which all find representatives in quote in essay the fascinating history of the poem’s reception, especially since the what thesis powerpoint, rise of critical interest in allegory in essay for uc colleges the latter half of the twentieth century. The present article hopes to readjust the what to include, grounds of this debate by quote in essay, providing a more extensive and accurate account than has previously been available of what to include in a thesis powerpoint Milton’s engagement with allegory and the controversies raised by this notion in in essay early modern culture.
Such an account should also prove a welcome corrective to the terminological eclecticism which has marked some of the work on the subject, and has perhaps occasionally hampered a more fruitful development of the debate. Obviously one is also tempted to what thesis powerpoint point to some highly suggestive parallels between Milton’s hermeneutic anti-allegorism and certain developments and motifs in essay colleges his literary work: for what to include powerpoint instance, between his abandonment of the term allegory and his abandonment of the early plans for an ostensibly allegorical epic, or between the write, two satanic births of allegory in the two companion poems—the birth of allegorical interpretation from Satan’s mouth in Paradise Regain’d and to include powerpoint, the birth of allegorical representation from Satan’s head in Paradise Lost . Especially since the mid-twentieth-century studies of Stein, MacCaffrey, and Ferry, a number of critics have commented on the association of allegory with fallen experience in Paradise Lost , and my account of the satanic allegory topos and its dramatization in Paradise Regain’d further validates and complements their insights. 49 Above all, it is hoped that the article demonstrates the need for further investigation along these lines. Although it certainly does not bode well for the allegorists, the above discussion does not present decisive evidence in short essay on pets favour of the literalists either. Both camps, however, along with the various factions interposed between them, ought to take it into account in future attempts to unravel the same ‘deceptively simple’ yet ‘obviously fundamental’ question posed by Waldock—‘the question of what, at this important juncture or that, is really happening ’ in to include in a these poems. Some of the material in this article was included in a paper given at essay prompts, the 60th Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, New York, 27-29 March 2014; I would like to thank all who shared in the discussion, and especially Helen Lynch, for organizing and inviting me to present. The article has also benefited from the comments of Irena Braticevic, Thomas Fulton, Ivan Lupic, and of course my supervisors, Catherine Bates and what in a thesis powerpoint, Paul Botley. A rthur S ymons . J ane D esmarais and C hris B aldick (eds).
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analog cover letter Analog phone lines. Analog signals. Digital security. Digital PBX. Analog-to-digital adapters. What does it all mean? In the telecom world, understanding analog versus digital isn't as simple as comparing one technology to another. It depends on what product#151;and in some cases, which product feature#151;you happen to what to include powerpoint be talking about. Analog at a glance. As a technology, analog is the essay colleges process of taking an to include audio or video signal (in most cases, the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the quote from books signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is to include in a thesis powerpoint, represented by write biology a series of 1s and 0s.
Simple enough when it's the to include in a powerpoint device#151;analog or digital phone, fax, modem, or likewise#151;that does all the converting for you. Is one technology better than the other? Analog technology has been around for decades. It's not that complicated a concept and fate essay it's fairly inexpensive to use. In A Thesis. That's why we can buy a $20 telephone or watch a few TV stations with the use of from a well-placed antenna.
The trouble is, analog signals have size limitations as to how much data they can carry. In A. So with our $20 phones and inexpensive TVs, we only get so much. The newer of the essay prompts colleges two, digital technology breaks your voice (or television) signal into binary code#151;a series of 1s and what thesis powerpoint 0s#151;transfers it to the other end where another device (phone, modem or TV) takes all the numbers and reassembles them into on pets the original signal. The beauty of digital is that it knows what it should be when it reaches the end of the transmission. That way, it can correct any errors that may have occurred in the data transfer.
What does all that mean to you? Clarity. In most cases, you'll get distortion-free conversations and clearer TV pictures. You'll get more, too. The nature of digital technology allows it to what in a cram lots of those 1s and 0s together into antigone the same space an analog signal uses. What Thesis. Like your button-rich phone at work or your 200-plus digital cable service, that means more features can be crammed into the digital signal. Compare your simple home phone with the essay one you may have at the office. At home you have mute, redial, and maybe a few speed-dial buttons.
Your phone at to include in a, work is loaded with function keys, call transfer buttons, and even voice mail. Now, before audiophiles start yelling at me through their PC screens, yes, analog can deliver better sound quality than digital…for now. Digital offers better clarity, but analog gives you richer quality. From In Essay. But like any new technology, digital has a few shortcomings. Since devices are constantly translating, coding, and reassembling your voice, you won't get the same rich sound quality as you do with analog. And for now, digital is still relatively expensive. But slowly, digital#151;like the VCR or the CD#151;is coming down in what to include in a thesis powerpoint, cost and coming out in everything from essay on pets, cell phones to satellite dishes.
When you're shopping in the telecom world, you often see products touted as all digital. Or warnings such as analog lines only. What does it mean? The basic analog and digital technologies vary a bit in definition depending on how they're implemented. Read on. What In A Thesis Powerpoint. Analog lines, also referred to as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), support standard phones, fax machines, and modems.
These are the lines typically found in your home or small office. Essay For Uc. Digital lines are found in large, corporate phone systems. How do you tell if the phone line is what in a powerpoint, analog or digital? Look at the back of the telephone connected to it. If you see complies with part 68, FCC Rules and a Ringer Equivalence Number (REN), then the phone and the line are analog. Also, look at essay for uc, the phone's dialpad. Are there multiple function keys? Do you need to dial 9 for an outside line? These are indicators that the phone and the line are digital. To Include In A. A word of caution.
Though digital lines carry lower voltages than analog lines, they still pose a threat to your analog equipment. If you're thinking of essay connecting your phone, modem, or fax machine to what your office's digital phone system, DON'T! At the very least, your equipment may not function properly. In the worst case, you could zap your communications tools into oblivion. How? Let's say you connect your home analog phone to your office's digital line. When you lift the quote from books receiver, the phone tries to draw an electrical current to operate.
Typically this is regulated by what to include in a thesis powerpoint the phone company's central office. Since the typical proprietary digital phone system has no facilities to regulate the current being drawn through it, your analog phone can draw too much current#151;so much that it either fries itself or in rare cases, damages the phone system's line card. What to do? There are digital-to-analog adapters that not only short essay on pets let you use analog equipment in a digital environment, but also safeguard against frying the internal circuitry of your phone, fax, modem, or laptop. Some adapters manufactured by to include in a thesis Konexx come designed to work with one specific piece of office equipment: phone, modem, laptop, or teleconferencer. Simply connect the adapter in between your digital line and on pets your analog device. That's it. Or you can try a universal digital-to-analog adapter such as Hello Direct's LineStein®. It works with any analog communications device. Plus, it's battery powered so you're not running extra cords all over your office.
The very nature of digital technology#151;breaking a signal into binary code and recreating it on the receiving end#151;gives you clear, distortion-free cordless calls. Cordless phones with digital technology are also able to encrypt all those 1s and 0s during transmission so your conversation is safe from what powerpoint, eavesdroppers. Plus, more power can be applied to digital signals and from books thus, you'll enjoy longer range on your cordless phone conversations. The advantage to analog cordless products? Well, they're a bit cheaper. What In A Powerpoint. And the proposal sound quality is in a, richer.
So unless you need digital security, why not save a few bucks and go with an analog phone? After all, in essay for uc colleges, home or small office environments where you may be the only cordless user, you won't have any interference issues. Keep in in a powerpoint, mind, when talking about digital and analog cordless phones, you're talking about the signals being transferred between the handset and its base. Antigone Fate Essay. The phones themselves are still analog devices that can only be used on analog lines. Also, the range of your cordless phone#151;analog or digital#151;will always depend on the environment. Perhaps the most effective use of the what digital versus analog technology is in 200 words about, the booming cellular market. With new phone activations increasing exponentially, the limits of what in a thesis analog are quickly being realized. Digital cellular lets significantly more people use their phones within a single coverage area. More data can be sent and write thesis received simultaneously by each phone user.
Plus, transmissions are more resistant to static and signal fading. And with the all-in-one phones out now#151;phone, pager, voice mail, internet access#151;digital phones offer more features than their analog predecessors. Analog's sound quality is still superior#151;as some users with dual-transmission phones will manually switch to analog for better sound when they're not concerned with a crowded coverage area#151;but digital is quickly becoming the in a norm in the cellular market. The first thing to consider when buying analog or digital equipment is where you'll be using it. If you're buying for a proprietary PBX phone system, you'll need to get the digital phone designed for that particular system. Need to write thesis connect a conferencer on your digital system? Opt for a digital-to-analog adapter. What To Include In A. Shopping for home office equipment? Most everything you'll consider is analog. Want an all-in-one cellular phone#151;paging, voice mail, web? A digital cellular phone will deliver it all.
In fact, the on pets only head-scratcher may be your cordless phone purchase. What To Include Thesis Powerpoint. Looking for security and distortion-free conversations in for uc, your small office? Go with a digital 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz cordless phone. Using a cordless at home? An analog phone will give you the richest sound quality and usually enough range.
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Essay Paper on Air Pollution in Thailand. by James Douglas and Kelly McNight. Air pollution in Thailand is considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems in the country. Especially severe are the implications of the problem for people who live in in a cities, where the books level of air pollution is substantially higher. The main air pollution contributors are power plants, factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, agricultural burning and open cooking. As a result, health concerns have increased and became an alarming signs to take necessary procedures. Moreover, the non-health implications are significant as well. They include loss of what powerpoint, productivity, damage of ecosystem and infrastructure. As for global impacts, they include acid rains, global warming, and damage to stratospheric ozone. Thus, air pollution is a very significant problem in Thailand and needs to be resolved immediately. In Thailand, the main responsibility of air quality monitoring is put upon the Pollution Control department (PCD).
It establishes standards and makes recommendations as to measures needed to be taken to improve environmental situation. Along with Government, PCD had contributed much to resolve the problem of from books in essay, air pollution. However, there is still much to be done. The main ways to what to include in a, fix the air pollution issue are: Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles, which are the most significant pollutants. Improving public transport and fate traffic management. This requires increasing the number of priority bus lanes and the development of alternative transportation, such as SkyTrains.
Adopting legislature that obliges industries to reduce emission. What To Include In A Thesis! Strengthening institutional effectiveness by improving coordination among agencies and building capacities at the local level; Broadening public involvement in air quality management; Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Expanding monitoring policies; The main obstacles on the way of implementation those policies and means: High cost of acquisition and implementation of advanced cleaning technologies and technologies that reduce emission. About Family! Resistance on behalf of corporations to implementation of those technologies because of to include powerpoint, their high costs. Possible public indifference and the absence of desire to cooperate in order to improve environmental issues.
Time needed to implement necessary environmental programs and technologies. Governmental delays and unwillingness to take actions; absence of essay family, support from public organizations. All those obstacles, however, may be easily overcome given that government take immediate and persistent action in implementing necessary programs, educating population and encouraging private sector to foster all governmental initiatives and express those initiatives themselves. 1. Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles. According to public perception polls on what to include powerpoint the issue of air pollution held in Bangkok, the majority of residents ask (90 % of those the total number of respondents) named motor vehicles the essay about main source of air pollution. Second place (8% of respondents) took construction road repairs and the third – garbage burning. (Impacts and Environmental management in Thailand, 2002) Thus, we see that motor vehicles are significant contributor to what to include in a thesis, the overall air pollution. Essay Colleges! In order to improve the situation and decrease the what to include in a thesis level of emission produced y cars and antigone essay motorcycles, the Thai government needs to foster efficient and in a powerpoint less pollute vehicles on one hand, and encourage citizens to 200 words essay about, use those vehicles on the other hand. As for the former, official authorities have to adopt higher emission standards for automobiles and what is mostly important to help companies to meet them. It can be done in the following way: Tax privileges for companies that produce certain amount of less pollute vehicles; To ensure Governmental orders for to include powerpoint those vehicles; To provide financial support for companies who work out special technologies that facilitate the process of creating less pollute vehicles. To encourage citizens to widely use those vehicles, the Government needs to:
Launch special public campaign that would educate citizens informing about essay prompts for uc colleges benefits they could get buying less pollute vehicles. This campaign might include TV commercials, media articles, public speeches etc. Tax reduction or tax elimination for those conscious citizens who use those cars and motorcycles. The government can also provide special grants or licenses for companies who produce special vehicles and what thesis powerpoint intend to sell them abroad. Below, the short overview of special technologies that can reduce the amount of emission produced by vehicles and other necessary procedures pertaining to vehicles polluting capacities is write provided. First of all, there exist new technologies, such as catalytic converters, that are able to make gasoline vehicles engines more efficient and less polluting. The implementation of more stringent tail pipe emissions standards will reduce PM (particular matter) emissions for new diesel vehicles. In fact, there exist Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards of what to include powerpoint, diesel vehicle emissions. The indicators of these standards of emissions are quite high.
To meet them, it is necessary that all diesel engines have direct fuel injections and computerized engine maintenance system. Another alternative is to increase the production of four-stroke motorcycles, which are less polluting and have better fuel-efficiency than those who have just two strokes. In fact, nowadays, the highly used are two-stroke engines, which are extremely dangerous. It is well known that two-stroke engines have only essay colleges, one revolution and must use a mixture of oil and fuel that burns incompletely. Then almost 25% of that oil and fuel is spit out, unburned, through exhaust. The use of two-stroke vehicles can seriously endanger the flourishing of Thai tourist industry. Therefore, four-strokes engine production is very important.
The four-stroke versions are much cleaner. The operating cost, however, may be lower as they are more fuel-efficient. Along with stricter and higher emissions standards for vehicles, it is also necessary for the Government to tighten vehicle maintenance and inspection policies. It means that, for instance, every city should have a special agency that is the to include in a thesis head responsible for checking all the vehicles intended for public transportation and those of private use. Emissions inspection and improving maintenance requirements, particularly for high-use diesel vehicles are significant issue. Essay! This kind of checking will ensure that a vehicle still can be used on the road without substantial danger for to include in a thesis powerpoint the citizens. It is also absolutely necessary to ensure installation of smoke filtration equipment in vehicles.
According to World Bank recommendations (2002), the Government also needs to require manufacturers to install exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles. Anorexia Research Papers! This will not increase cost of production substantially (just about by 2%), but will drastically reduce Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen. It is also quite efficient to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel. Sulfur content of automotive diesel is 2,000 ppm and the Clean Air Act requires reduction to 500 ppm by 2004– the norm used by many countries today. (World Bank, 2002) Here, it also necessary to what in a thesis powerpoint, mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Antigone Essay! Lead is what to include thesis powerpoint a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and biology proposal crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to to include thesis, lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities. Thus, all the above recommendations will help to short essay, enhance vehicles emission reduction while encouraging people to widely use new less pollute vehicle in their day-to-day lives. 2. Improving public transportation management. The major problem with public transportation in Thailand is its low level of diversification and what in a thus high level of those transportation vehicles that produce high levels of emission.
The diversification means that buses should be complemented with railway vehicles including subways. Skytrain is an essay prompts colleges, excellent low polluting alternative as well. Generally, in Bangkok all public transportation is run by Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and Bangkok Transit System. The first one is in charge of all wheel transport, i.e. public buses. The second one takes care of Thailand light rail system. What In A Thesis Powerpoint! Both report to the Ministry of Transport and Communications.
To improve public transportation in Thailand, it is necessary to make the following steps: Increase the anorexia research papers number of Euro2 buses running. Those are buses that have lower emission and higher speed. Thesis Powerpoint! As BMTA reports, it has launched Euro 2 buses. Yet, there are not enough of them to satisfy all public needs. Implement more bus lanes to decrease the essay prompts colleges pressure in peak times. In fact, the Thailand Environmental Monitor suggests providing 12-corridor bus-lanes 110 km long. Moreover, it is thesis also necessary to provide adequate sidewalks and bicycle lanes that will encourage people to biology, use public transportation, carpool, and bicycle or just walk small distances.
Implement mass rapid transit system. Interestingly that Thailand’s rail transportation, which dates back more than century, is extensive, covering 4,000 kilometers on three lines, intersecting in Bangkok. The system currently offers affordable transportation from the Malaysian border to northernmost provinces in in a thesis powerpoint the west. Thus, it has good capacity. However, this capacity needs to be further developed into rapid transit system, which is able to substitute highly pollute bus transportation. Providing more trains and higher speed it can merely double the number of for uc, passengers transported. Develop Skytrain system. As BTS reports, the BTS Skytrain is the safest, most comfortable and what to include thesis powerpoint convenient way to get around Bangkok. In service since December 5, 1999, it has transformed the face of public transportation in the Thai capital, offering both residents and essay visitors a comfortable ride through central Bangkok lifting them above the chronic congestion, noise and pollution of the streets below. Not only Sky train is to include in a thesis merely pollution free, it is also very comfortable, quick and efficient. The BTS Sky Train’s high-capacity operating system ensures almost no breakdowns and anorexia papers a virtual 100% punctuality.
Each train can carry over 1,000 passengers while a similar number of what, people would use 800 cars. Thus BTS Skytrain is the most environmentally friendly mass transit system in papers Thailand. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive and safe. However, the main problem pertaining to to include thesis powerpoint, this means of transportation is that there are not so many lines where it can be used. Thus, the primary task of the Government regarding the environmental issue of cleaner air is extending Sky Train system and making this means of transportation more available for public use. It is an issue of from, crucial importance for the Government to promote and assist in production and launching of what thesis powerpoint, public transport, which is papers able to work using electricity, such as electric tricycle, electric bus, and electric-motorcycle. These kinds of products are not yet so much widely used and to include thesis produced. Those are very commercial products. Therefore, they need special governmental care and support.
Yet, since highly popularized and widely used, they can become serious “air saviors” as opposite to regular oil cars. In such away all the above procedures are able to improve public transportation management thus enhancing the issue of environmental safety, air pollution decrease in quote from books in essay particular. 3. What To Include In A Thesis! Adopting legislature obliging industries to reduce emission. It is very important for Government to oblige industrial firms to prompts colleges, cut their pollution levels. To Include In A Powerpoint! Certainly, it requires substantial costs, because factories need to adopt cleaner production patterns, energy efficiency and advanced emissions control technologies. Yet, the anorexia problem might occur with small plants, which do not have enough financial resources to afford such substantial investments. However, social responsibility issue, including the one of environment, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, all the companies need to realize that by cooperating with Government and enhancing decrease in air pollution levels they are actually improving their public image and provide wide market for their products or services.
However, it is the primary task of Government to stimulate or reinforce the implementation of cleaning technologies. The incentives for industrial corporations to in a thesis, implement cleaning technologies may include: Tax extension for a certain period; Tax reduction or tax privileges for implementing certain type of technology; Allowing faster depreciation; Granting certain political privileges; Encouraging cooperation among companies to provide patterns of scientific technology needed to be implemented in internal production processes. Such incentives might stimulate companies to work more efficiently and enhance further social responsibility. As for smaller companies, Government needs either support them financially directly or encourage bigger companies to provide certain help.
It is also very helpful for Government to establish special fund that will accumulate money needed to acquire necessary technology and implement them in production. However, it is not only necessary to provide incentives for the companies, but also take serious measures to essay prompts colleges, ultimately punish those who fail to comply with the overall governmental requirements. Those punishments might include: Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and what to include in a resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentration in antigone essay the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and to include in a thesis powerpoint kidney damage, and learning disabilities.
As it was already mentioned, the second place as the major polluter according to public perception took the railroad construction. Antigone Fate Essay! Thus, along with factories, construction industry is to be obliged to control dust on the roads as well. It should be the responsibility of those construction workers to enhance road cleanness and powerpoint dust control. In fact, here local inspections that provide special checking can be of great help. Thus, Government should necessarily provide relevant legislature that would oblige companies to implement pollution reduction technologies on essay one hand, and provide effective incentives and support to facilitate the thesis powerpoint process of in essay, implementation of those technologies. 4. Strengthening institutional effectiveness. This issue contains the important implications of local government decentralization. Simply saying, in order to what thesis, enhance and improve institutional effectiveness and thus pursue environmental care it is necessary to:
Improve the coordination between the agencies that have different function regarding the air pollution problems. Currently, Government agencies include: Pollution Control Department (PCD) Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Department of Industrial Work (DIW) Department of Land Transport (DLT) Office of the write thesis proposal Commission of for the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT) Expand local Government role. What To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint! It is not a secret that for a central government it is oftentimes very difficult to control all the anorexia research programs and procedures concerning different environmental programs. Therefore, some delegation of to include in a, authority should be distributed to the lower level in order to antigone fate essay, enhance efficiency of those environmental problems. 5. Broadening public involvement in what in a thesis powerpoint air quality management. All Governmental efforts might turn absolutely useless if not providing public support and assistance. Thus, it is on pets a crucial task for the Government to in a thesis powerpoint, ensure wide public involvement in about air quality management. This could be accomplished using the what to include thesis powerpoint following means: Broad educational and essay informational programs, which were already mentioned. What In A Thesis! They could increase public awareness about possible health danger of their own and what is even worse the health danger of their children.
Schools and different educational institutions should play major role in this process. Moreover, it is absolutely necessary to essay, establish required course that would discuss such a vulnerable issue as air pollution. Involvement of public communities in environmental programs. The local government should take active part in arranging and stimulating those programs. Examples of how the public can contribute include car-pooling using mass transit; walking; biking; using energy efficient appliances; utilizing air conditioners wisely with non-ozone depleting (Chlorofluorocarbons -free) refrigerants; regularly maintaining cars and making sure these meet emission standards; composting waste; planting trees; and what powerpoint reporting smoke-belching vehicles to relevant authorities. Enforce the ban on antigone essay waste burning in cities. The Government needs to promote and public needs to adequately respond to an urgent need for waste recycling, composting and sanitary land filling. Support and collaborate with the private sector, associations, independent groups and all categories of mass media to participate in public relations efforts and campaigns to in a thesis powerpoint, educate and increase understanding and awareness of hazardous threats from pollutants in air, and be informed of short essay, enforcement of laws against to include in a thesis powerpoint all categories of polluters.
It is the primary task of Government to support study, research and training in technologies for biology thesis proposal control and in a powerpoint eradication of polluted air, including improving and maintaining machinery to decrease air pollution. For Uc! This kind of studies should be highly taught within different communities and corporations. Public awareness about safety issues should be increased using different kinds of meetings with medical staff. What To Include In A Thesis Powerpoint! These meetings can be organized within local communities as not official ones. They can be also organized on short essay on pets the highest levels as different conferences and seminars to share the knowledge as to how improve public health, how to prevent different serious disasters associated with air pollution. This kind of conferences should be held not less than once a year and its result should be published and distributed. Society must be engaged in the environmental activities. Yet, it is very hard to do when people do not know what kind of problems they are to face and what to include thesis why those problems are so extremely serious. 6. Implementation of write proposal, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) It has already been mentioned that one of the challenges on the way to implement and develop different environmental issues, including air pollution is high cost. The main funding mechanism of different environmental programs is so-called Clean Development mechanism (CDM).
CDM allows different countries – developing as well as developed – to work together to achieve Kyoto protocol targets. (Kyoto protocol is an international agreement that obliges countries that signed it to take specific and serious measures to what, enhance environmental safety issues.) As Thailand Environment monitor reports, once the Kyoto protocol has been ratified internationally, and the CDM is operational, developing countries will be able to obtain funding for projects aimed at greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, while developed countries can use these emission reductions towards their Kyoto compliance limitations. Thailand’s GHG emission is expected to double by 2020. (Greenhouse gas is gas such as CO2, CH4, NO2, which increase global temperature by trapping solar electromagnetic radiation). The bulk of greenhouse emissions are energy, agriculture, and antigone essay waste sectors. Thus, they should become the primary focus of CDM initiatives. The efficient CDM strategy should include: Reducing CO2 in the energy sector; Converting CH4 from waste to energy; Sequestering CO2 through reforestation and afforestation activities. According to Thailand Environment Monitoring, in order for Thailand to engage and gain benefits from the in a thesis CDM market, it is necessary to do the following: Create national CDM authority that would implement and control different CDM activities; To create special investment funds and to essay prompts colleges, ensure transparent process of investment for what thesis powerpoint all interested in CDM programs; Establish efficient mechanism that would ensure wide public participation in different CDM programs; Ensure that all investments made in CDM are in compliance with existing country’s environmental impact assessment requirements; Those procedures are needed to be undertaken in essay prompts for uc colleges order for the country to catch existing opportunities in the global market and on what in a the worldwide arena. Kyoto Protocol, in fact, has serious implications for those countries that signed it.
To be specific, if the country is the member of this Protocol, it has substantial privileges meaning that it is able to market own opportunities on one hand. However, on the other hand, all members of the essay colleges agreement accept serious obligations and need to ensure the compliance with certain environmental requirements, which should not exceed given levels or given norms. 7. Expanding monitoring policies. Monitoring is what powerpoint a central issue in the policy of air quality management programs. In order for the monitoring to be effective, it is thesis proposal necessary to: Establish extensive network of monitoring centers.
Those centers might be established on the state level, as well as on the level of each particular city. Moreover, it is even better that each particular city has own monitoring center and is able to to include in a powerpoint, share its knowledge and experience with the others. Central monitoring institution should provide coordination and control of all the antigone fate rest monitoring centers around the country. It is necessary for monitoring networks to provide frequent and relevant information upon any issues of concern in what to include thesis powerpoint order to ensure in time quality control and measures. Otherwise, the efficiency of those networks is questionable. For instance, if there is a danger of increased level of dangerous components in the air, public should be immediately informed to be able to save their health from such a disaster. Yet, it is 200 words important to emphasize that such information must be absolutely relevant and powerpoint hundred percent proven. Otherwise, it might cause unnecessary panic in society and undermine government’s capability to handle the situation.
Finally, efficient monitoring should be based on constant public involvement. Fate! Simply saying, Government needs to ensure that wide audience has an access to monitoring center information and the latter can get a feedback from the people in the form of what thesis, different noticed alarming signs, different ideas how to prompts, improve existing situation, suggestions and comments. To Include Thesis! If this kind of two-way communication with society is ensured, it will help not only to increase the efficiency of monitoring problems, but also engage public into active participation in environmental problems, air quality management in particular. Air pollution in short on pets Thailand is one of the most serious environmental issues. High levels of in a thesis, pollution endanger public health, decrease efficiency in production, and provoke serious climatic changes on the global level.
Therefore, this issue should be resolved immediately. For the Government of research, Thailand, it is important to undertake the following steps to resolve and to include in a thesis improve the situation with the air quality within the country: Adopt relevant legislature to reduce vehicles emission and to oblige companies to implement cleaning technology or technologies that reduce dangerous emission substantially; Encourage production and use of less pollute vehicles, such as four-stroke motorcycles. Effective public transportation management; Reduce the amount of lead in gasoline; Engage public in different environmental programs through vast system of education and information; Ensure effective CDM implementation; Develop broad monitoring sysstem.