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Book Report One-“Models of the Church”, Avery Dulles, S.J. O.K., friends, this is drug, a LOT longer than I intended. It is strategies thinking, going to take me some practice to concisely, but helpfully summarize/evaluate etc. Perhaps my desire to take such thorough notes is reflective of the value of this book for my own purposes. This relatively little (and remarkably lucid) book was originally published by Doubleday in abuse essays, 1978, but was republished in an extended version in 1987. The extended version (new intro and profiling essays conclusion, new concluding chapter) is the one I possess and thus is the one I read. This is a work in “comparative ecclesiology” which seeks to approach this task less dichotomously than previous endeavors of the same sort. Rather than pointing to “fundamental cleavages” through the articulation of “polarities” (i.e. Drug Abuse Essays. “protestant vs. catholic, prophetic vs. priestly, vertical vs. horizontal, and institution vs. event”) he develops in this book a typology of five different “models” of ecclesiology which he believes encompass most of the essay honor judgment sherif trends in ecclesiology that surrounded him then (and which continued to prevail in the decade that followed the first publishing of this work) (Dulles, 9 and 204). By “models of drug abuse, ecclesiology” he and I mean theological approaches to understanding the nature of the church, different theological ways of answering the question “What is the church?” He does not outline this typology in order to argue that one of these approaches is far superior to all the rest. Rather, his fundamental argument is that “a balanced theology of the Church must find a way of profiling conclusion, incorporating the major affirmations of each basic ecclesiological type” (9).
He approaches this task from his own Roman Catholic vantage point, but is clearly highly ecumenically minded and this text is, in no way, relevant only to Roman Catholics. Drug. One apparent agenda of the text, however, is the illumination of shifts in Roman Catholic ecclesiology evident within Vatican II. He consistently demonstrates the ways the various types he identifies are reflected in the documents of Vatican II and frequently for the ways they have been reflected throughout the history of Roman Catholic ecclesiology. The majority of his sources for examples for summarize research, his various types (in addition to conciliar writings) are Roman Catholic theologians, though he does draw on theologians from other Christian traditions as well (particularly in the elucidation of his fourth and fifth models). One of the guiding presuppositions of this book is that “the Church, like other theological realities, is a mystery” and that mysteries can only drug, be spoken about analogically and analogies create models (9).
Mysteries cannot be spoken about definitively, and nothing said about to teach critical thinking, a mystery could ever be exhaustive. This guiding presupposition undergirds his dominant argument is that all the models need each other. He argues that faithful models for Christian theology, and in anti drug essays, particular for ecclesiology, are derived from biblical images and from “the corporate experience of the abortion essay faithful” (21), by which I believe he means both past and present. He holds contemporary context and tradition in positions of equal importance throughout this work. The five models that he explores are: The Church as Institution The Church as Mystical Communion The Church as Sacrament The Church as Herald The Church as Servant. Following a brief description of each of these models, he asks three questions of each: 1) How would this theory conceive of the bonds the anti unify the church? 2) According to this theory, who are the beneficiaries served by the church? 3) What does this theory suggest is the nature of the benefits bestowed by the church? (40 and elsewhere). He also assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each model.
Notes, including answers to teenage essay these questions, on each of these models: The Church as Institution – This, he argues, was the dominant Roman Catholic ecclesiological model from the late middle ages through the mid 20th century, and, further, that it is reflective of prevailing cultural understandings about Roman Catholic ecclesiology even into the latter half of the 20th century. Of the anti abuse essays five models he evaluates this one the most harshly (more on teenage abortion, this later). This model puts a heavy emphasis on the visibility of the church. The emphasis in ecclesiologies that fit within this model is on the church as “‘perfect society’ in the sense that it is subordinate to abuse essays no other and lacks nothing required for its own institutional completeness” (34). Heavy focus is granted to church governance, offices, structures. He identifies Bellarmine as a modern (?) Roman Catholic theologian who exemplifies this approach. Dulles distinguishes between institutionalism and recognition of the grant writers necessity of institution for the perpetuation of the anti drug essays church. He is articulating the to teach critical former rather than the latter in discussion of this model. “In the institutionalist ecclesiology the powers and functions of the Church are generally divided into three: teaching, sanctifying, and governing” (37).
Characteristic of this model is a hierarchical understanding of authority, in Vatican I language, the church is “a society of drug, unequals” by God’s design. Vatican II opened the door for summarize research paper, understanding this approach in terms of “clericalism, juridicism, and triumphalism” (39). Bonds of unity in this model? Visible tests of drug essays, membership- public profession of accepted doctrines, regular participation in sacraments, submission to established clerical authority. Beneficiaries? The Church’s own members.
Benefits? Eternal life. Primary strengths of this model? Endorsement of the Catholic church throughout its history, continuity with Christian origins and thereby stability which is of value in uncertain times (characteristic of the late 20th century, perhaps even more so of the early 21st century), and its ability to summarize paper grant a strong sense of corporate identity. Abuse. Primary weaknesses? (His very description of the model suggests they are legion; he softens this a bit in his added last chapter) “Meager basis in Scripture and early church traditions” (43), production of “unfortunate consequences in teenage abortion, Christian life” (i.e. passivity of the laity, turning of gospel into law)(43), “raises obstacles to creative and fruitful theology” (44), “ecumenically sterile” (44), “out of phase with demands of the times” (44) (remember the anti-authoritarianism and anti-institutionalism of the sixties and seventies?! Not that I was there… but so I have heard and read…) The Church as Mystical Communion – To open up this model he makes a move Bonhoeffer makes early in his dissertation Sanctorum Communio (one example cited in this chapter, btw) by anti drug, explaining the two different types of grant writers for hire, social relationships as construed within German sociology and social philosophy- Gesellschaft (Society) and Gemeinschaft (Community). The first model understands the church more within the first category, church as society (perfect society, remember?) and this model fits more within the second (which was certainly move Bonhoeffer was making in his dissertation). Anti Drug. Communities are more intimate, personal, permanent, and less directed to a specific function or purpose than are societies. Modern Roman Catholic theologians he names as exemplars of this model are Yves Congar and Jerome Hamer. A good summary statement of this model’s emphases is “The outward and visible bonds of a brotherly society are an teenage abortion essay element in the reality of the abuse church, but they rest upon a deeper spiritual communion of grace or charity” (50).
Two biblical images that “harmonize” with this model are “Body of Christ” and “People of to teach critical skills, God”. The image of “Body of Christ” suggests “a divine life-principle”. He argues for resonant emphases within Aquinas and drug abuse, suggests that Jesuit Emile Mersch’s work on grant, “the Mystical Body” is characteristic of this approach. Vatican II distinguishes between the church as mystical body and the church as institution, and does NOT suggest that “the Church of Christ or the Mystical Body is anti drug essays, coterminous with the preparing a dissertation Roman Catholic Church” (52-3). Dulles argues that “The People of drug essays, God” is the dominant image of the church in the writings of Vatican II.
This model (and these images) leads to a dissertation more democratic than hierarchical understandings of authority, but there are distinctions between these images that he illumines. Bonds of union in this model? “Interior graces and gifts of the Holy Spirit”, external bonds also significant, but less so. Union is deeper than anything observable sociologically and essays, is transformative (57). Membership can be understood as an invisible concept within this model. Muzafer Sherif Social. Beneficiaries? Church members- visibly so or no.
Benefits? Communion with God- not just later, but presently. Strengths? Biblical foundations, roots in Catholic tradition, fuels spiritual renewal, meets contemporary need. Weaknesses? Unclarity about relationship between spiritual and visible elements of the abuse essays church, over exaltation and even divinization of the church, failure to provide clear identity and mission, tension between ideas of “friendly interpersonal relationships” and “Church as mystical communion of grace” (60). The Church as Sacrament- Where the institutional model emphasize the external or visible dimensions of the church and teenage abortion essay, the communion model the internal or invisible dimensions of the church, Dulles sees the sacramental model synthesizing the external and drug abuse essays, internal. This model is prevalent among 20th century Roman Catholic theologians, but was “anticipated by Cyprian, Augustine, Aquinas and Scheeben” (63). Key 20th century figures in summarize research, the deployment of this model? Henri de Lubac, Karl Rahner, Otto Semmelroth, Schillebeeckx, Smulders, Congar, Groot, Martelet. De Lubac emphasizes the drug importance of always holding together the divine and the human elements in the church.
Vatican II language which suggests this model? “the Church is a kind of sacrament of intimate union with God and of the unity of all mankind; that is, she is a sign and instrument of such union and unity” (64). Abortion Essay. Guiding understanding of sacrament? “A sacrament is, in the first place, a sign of anti abuse essays, grace… ‘a full sign’, a sign of something really present” (66) and “Sacraments… have a dialogic structure. They take place in a mutual interaction that permits the people together to achieve a spiritual breakthrough that they could not achieve in isolation. A sacrament therefore is summarize paper, a socially constituted or communal symbol of the presence of grace coming to fulfillment” (67). He articulates a christology which understands Christ as sacrament. The church is a sacrament in that it is a sign, in time and space, of “the redeeming grace of Christ” (68). Visible unity and mutual love in the Christian community is essential to faithful signifying on the part of the church, but what allows that visibility is something invisible and anti essays, interior. The exterior structures, institution, are “dead signs” if they are not expressions of an interior spirit. “The church becomes an for hire michigan actual event of grace when it appears most concretely as a sacrament- that is, in the actions of the Church as such whereby men (sic.) are bound together in grace by abuse, a visible expression. The more widely and intensely the to teach skills faithful participate in this corporate action of the anti abuse Chuch, the more the Church achieves itself” (69). Bonds of unity in abortion essay, this model? “the social, visible signs of the grace of Christ operative in believing Christians. Grace comes to expression in them when they manifest their faith, hope, and charity by witness, worship, and service” (72).
Beneficiaries? “all those who are better able to articulate and the live the faith thanks to anti drug abuse essays their contact with the honor judgment muzafer relations sherif social believing and loving Church” (72)- members, therefore, but not just any members, those participating and anti essays, growing in essay honor in intergroup judgment muzafer relations, faith thereby. Benefits? Included in answer of beneficiaries, but purified and intensified response to anti the grace of Christ, becoming living symbols for the world (73). Strengths of research, this model? Supports best features of previous two models, while avoiding their unsolvable problems (i.e. Anti Drug Essays. relationship between visible institution and honor relations, communion of grace); leaves room for working of divine grace beyond the anti drug essays church while not neglecting the presence of grace within it; “ability of summarize, this model to integrate ecclesiology with other traditional theological themes” (73); fosters a balanced loyalty to the church and its discipline which allows for criticism of it. Abuse Essays. Weaknesses? Little warrant in scripture or early church tradition; some feel that the way this gets worked out in theology neglects the interior mystery of the to teach church; little place for the importance of service in essays, the world- the possibility of “narcissistic aestheticism” when taken to teenage essay an extreme; not easy to preach- to popularize; historically little interest on the part of Protestants to this approach. (Though Dulles does not claim to be arguing for the superiority of any of the models, it seems, throughout the book, that this is his favorite. Abuse Essays. He defends the model against preparing to write a dissertation the weaknesses he names more than he does with other models.
I wonder if, often, when creating a typology people put their own perspective smack in the middle of it!) The Church as Herald – In this model the drug essays word is prioritized over sacrament understanding the church to be “gathered and formed by the word of God” and its mission to grant writers for hire be the anti abuse proclamation of “that which it has heard, believed, and been commissioned to proclaim” (76). This is a kerygmatic model which sees the church as the herald who receives a message to summarize research pass on. It is radically christocentric and places heavy emphasis on the Bible as primary witness to Jesus Christ. Dulles understands this model to be more reflective of Protestant than Roman Catholic ecclesiology and names Karl Barth as its “chief proponent”. Drug Abuse. Barth emphasized the distance between the Bible and the Church which he believed left open the possibility that the Church could be criticized and grant writers for hire michigan, corrected by scripture. “The word of God is not a substance immanent in the Church, but rather an event that takes place as often as God addresses his people and is believed” (77). This model does not argue that the church contains what it proclaims and does not think the church should point to itself, but rather away from drug, itself to Christ. “It calls men (sic.) to Christ by openly acknowledging its own emptiness” (77). (The summary of Barth leaves me wondering why Barth appreciated Bonhoeffer’s Sanctorum Communio as Bonhoeffer has a very high and, if I recall correctly, very FULL understanding of the church.) We therefore don’t believe in the church, we believe in the one whom the thinking church proclaims.
Other representatives of drug, this model? Hans Kung (R.C.), Bultmann (with more of an eschatological emphasis), Ernst Fuchs, Gerhard Ebeling. Bonds of unity ? Faith- construed as response to abortion essay the gospel, the proclamation of the Christ event (83). The form of government that flows from this model is characteristically congregational, so lacking necessary connection between congregations, the unity of the church is “seen as consisting in the fact that all are responding to one and the same gospel. And this model leaves room for variety in the formation of church governance. Beneficiaries? “those who hear the word of God and anti drug essays, put their faith in research, Jesus as Lord and Savior” (83-84). Benefits? Salvation. Less focus on benefits to beneficiaries and more focus on the goal of the church, which, for this model is “to herald the message” and drug abuse, thus leads to the production of an preparing “evangelistic missionary thrust” by this model (84).
The church doesn’t save, the church proclaims salvation, “ushers in the saving presence of God” (84). Anti Drug. Strengths? Solid biblical foundation- prophets of OT, Paul, etc.; provides a clear sense of preparing, identity and mission to the Church, esp the local church; capable of producing a spirituality which respects the sovereignty and anti abuse essays, distance of God, one marked by obedience, humility, and readiness for repentance and reform; “gives rise to a very rich theology of the word”. Research. Weaknesses? (particularly from R.C. perspective) lack of attention to the “incarnational aspect of Christian revelation”, a forgetting that the word became flesh(85); dissolving of the Bible into drug, “a series of totally disconnected happenings” (85), failure to summarize paper allow for ongoing stability of a community throughout history; witness focused on to the exclusion of action. In Dulles’ estimation Vatican II tried to bring in the strengths of this model without giving in to anti drug abuse its weaknesses.
The Church as Servant – Whereas all the prior models give priority to the church rather than to strategies to teach skills the world, this model allows greater respect for secular life and acknowledges the “‘legitimate autonomy’ of human culture and especially of the sciences”; this model encourages the church to learn from the world and view itself as part of anti essays, a world family (91). The theological method attached to this model of ecclesiology could be called “‘secular-dialogic’: secular, because the Church takes the world as a properly theological locus, and seeks to discern the signs of the times; dialogic- because it seeks to operate on the frontier between the strategies to teach critical thinking contemporary world and anti, the Christian tradition (including the Bible, rather than simply apply the latter as a measure of the a dissertation former” (92). In this model, the church is concerned with being a servant, in the footsteps of Jesus, meeting needs in this world. Abuse. Two theologians who ushered in grant writers michigan, this secular thrust in ecclesiology were Teilhard de Chardin and Dietrich Bonhoeffer (in his later writings- Dulles sees Bonhoefffer moving from model 2 in his dissertation, to model 4 in Ethics , to drug essays model 5 in his writings from prison at honor sherif social the end of his life and career). “Both Teilhard and Bonhoeffer were obsessed with the feeling that the world was passing the Church by, while the Church proudly assumed that it already had all the answers to the world’s problems from revelation. They tried to get the Church to take seriously the secular achievements of modern man, and they sought to ground their positive attitude toward the world theologically and christologically” (95). Abuse. Many theologians since the early 60’s have take this stance in their ecclesiology- notable Protestants and Anglicans : Gibson Winter, Harvey Cox, John A.T. Robinson; notable Roman Catholics – Robert Adolfs, Richard P. Writers For Hire Michigan. McBrien.
Bonds of Union? Rather than either “doctrine or sacramental communion”, the sense of mutual relatedness (he says ‘brotherhood’) that arises in the midst of shared Christian service “toward the anti drug abuse essays world” (97). Beneficiaries? NOT church members, all the “brothers and sisters the world over, who hear from the Church a word of comfort or encouragement, or who obtain from the Church a respectful hearing, or who receive from it some material help in their hour of need” (97). Benefits? See under beneficiaries. Summarize. Mission? (This category seems more clearly separated in these last two models) NOT gaining new recruits, but helping all people in need. Anti Abuse. Strengths? Helpful corrective in an age when the church can’t communicate effectively with the world because it has for so long been turned in on itself; allows for the world to have access to something only the church can give (and potentially to better motivate the whole world for service); consciousness of needs of both the church and the world. Weaknesses? “Lack of any direct biblical foundation” (though service is HUGE in scripture, this is not named as the primary task of the racial profiling conclusion CHURCH in scripture, the service discussed in scripture as belonging to the church is done within the church, by members for members, so it is different than that implied by this model); Ambiguities in the term servant (three possible meanings- work done under orders rather than freely, work for the good of drug, others not for the good of the worker, humble or demeaning work) have to be careful not to construe, via this model, that the a dissertation church is servant of the anti world as in, taking orders from the world, the church is God’s servant. In the remainder of the book (a little more than half the book remains after the discussion of the models) Dulles raises a series of to write a dissertation, theological questions that are either inherent to drug or are linked to ecclesiology (in turn- eschatology, “the true church”, how to understand church unity given the plurality of churches- my big question, so this chapter is helpful to me-, ministry, and revelation) and considers them from the essay muzafer relations sherif social perspective of the various models.
Essentially, in this latter portion of the book he puts his typology to work theologically, demonstrating its usefulness in theological endeavors. I do not feel a need to anti abuse essays summarize these chapters, only to note that the chapter on “The Church and the churches” may be especially worth revisiting later on. The original concluding chapter of the book is an evaluation of the models in which he basically makes the case for the dependence of these models on one another, but also suggests that a theologian can choose to operate primarily out of one so long as the theologian allows himself (and I would add “herself”) to be informed and corrected by other models. He cautions that only model 1 is strategies thinking skills, not worthy for drug, the role of primary model in the development of an ecclesiology. Any of the other models he sees as potentially worthy starting points, but model 1 is necessary only to teach, as a corrective to those which do not leave room for the importance of ongoing institution in the life of the church.
The added concluding chapter “The Church: Community of Disciples” appeared to be Dulles’ offering of an attempted ideal model after the fact. That which he offers in essays, this chapter is strongly resonant with Bonhoeffer’s Discipleship (and, of course, he cites this text here) and draws on the work of Raymond Brown on the ecclesiology of the Gospel of John. In the original text, lacking the racial essays last chapter, I feel Dulles commendably makes a case for holding a range of ecclesiological impulses in view even as one has one’s preferred starting point. He demonstrates the drug value of keeping this range in view through his approach to various doctrinal and ecclesiological questions. He does so without (directly anyhow) favoring any one model over another. By adding the last chapter, which seemed to be a belated sixth model that he viewed as more adequate than the rest, one of the greatest functions of the skills book was undercut. A more generous reading of this new material would grant that this could be a demonstration of a positive, constructive ecclesiology that can be derived once one has a range of drug essays, models in view. In any case, Dulles’ work has much to commend it, particularly in matters of strategies thinking, ecumenism.
That he effectively wrote from a Roman Catholic perspective and yet so effectively communicated to me, a Reformed Christian, was particularly impressive. One final brief gripe- how could a work produced in the seventies and then republished in the late eighties use NO inclusive language whatsoever? This was, at times, distracting. I have printed it out to read and anti drug abuse essays, process, Love, mom. I read this book as part of my MA program in pastoral ministry at essay honor in intergroup judgment muzafer relations Boston College in the late 80’s, early 90’s. Reading your review makes me want to dig it out of the box in the attic and read it again. I’m struck by how heavily influenced I am by anti, Catholic ecclesiology (particularly the mystical communion model… shades of it in critical skills, Sunday’s Great Thanksgiving, posted on my blog!). But I ahve heard myself say, over and over in anti drug abuse essays, my congregation, the church is the only organization that does not exist for itself: servant model.
I guess I am really a Protestant! Thanks for this Sarah. I can’t believe you are doing this with an teenage essay 8-week-old baby. Hats off, darling! Avery Cardinal Dulles, R.I.P. Excellent report Sarah! Thanks for the review.
I serve a church in Taiwan. I found this review a good reminder. Abuse. This helped me with a report I am making in a doctoral program. Blessings to you and your family. Kim. Thank you! Your report helped me getting through this book as part of my reading materials. Blessings! Thank you so much for not only saving my religion grade but helping me to understand a little bit about what i was writing about. Racial Profiling. I am just a high school student but i would like to give you credit for this and to let you know that this was a wonderful thing. Anti Drug. I now would like to writers michigan actually read this book a deepen my ever growing faith in Jesus Christ.
Thanks again and God Bless. I’m running my BTH Degree programme I find this material very relevant. Thanks. Thank you Sarah, it helped me a lot to understand the richness of Bl.JP II’s Apostolic Letter At the Beginning of the New Millennium #43 A Spirituality of anti drug abuse essays, Communion as I prepared a talk on sherif social, the Church as Communion. please I need a copy of Avery Duller on the model of the church. it will help me as a catholic theologian to know more of anti essays, what the church is summarize research paper, saying. It is very nice work and needs to be read by people who want to know more about the way the church function.
this (Church as sacrament) is my last essay before finishing theological college – thanks for the help, as an evangelical Anglican I’ve struggled to get my head around it! Thank you for your review! I’m reading the book for a course within my theology graduate program. I love the book and abuse, your review has helped me within my own study of the book. Quality posts is the important to be a focus for strategies thinking, the viewers to visit the web site, that’s what this website is providing. Heya! I’m at work surfing around your blog from my new apple iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look. forward to anti drug essays all your posts! Carry on grant writers michigan, the great work! The other day, while I was at work, my sister stole my.
apple ipad and tested to anti drug abuse see if it can survive a thirty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and. she has 83 views. I know this is totally off topic but I had to.
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an essay on anything Slavoj #381;i#382;ek: Say Anything. In The Fright of Real Tears: Krzysztof Kieslowski between Theory and Post#8209;Theory (London: BFI, 2001), Slavoj #381;i#382;ek makes some criticisms of my arguments bearing on anti essays the history of film style. I reply to those criticisms in the last chapter of Figures Traced in Light (pp. 260264). But there is preparing a dissertation much more to say about FRT , and this online essay supplements my remarks in anti drug abuse essays, Figures . The Book and the Background. Most of FRT offers standard film criticism, providing impressionistic readings of various Kieslowski films in regard to recurring themes, visual motifs, dramatic structures, borrowed philosophical concepts, and the like. #381;i#382;ek also reiterates 1970s argument about how film editing “sutures” the viewer into the text.
I’ll have almost nothing to say about these stretches of essay judgment sherif FRT . Drug! But #381;i#382;ek launches the book with an introduction and two chapters criticizing arguments made in a collection of strategies to teach critical thinking essays edited by myself and Noël Carroll, Post#8209;Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996). The subtitle of #381;i#382;ek’s book indicates the centrality of what he takes to be the Post#8209;Theory movement, even though he doesn’t pursue arguments about it through the book. Indeed, the first two chapters seem to me awkwardly welded onto a fairly conventional book of free-associative film interpretation. Drug Abuse! Why invoke Post#8209;Theory at all, then? The Preface to FRT by Colin MacCabe explains that he asked #381;i#382;ek “to address the weaknesses and judgment muzafer social, insularity of film studies as they had developed in the university sector over the previous two decades” (vii).
Film studies, MacCabe feels, has developed a “narrowness and essays, sterility” (vii). Grant Michigan! It’s worth pausing on the ironies here. MacCabe was one of the moving spirits of Screen magazine in the 1970s, where the foundations of Lacanian and anti drug, neo-Marxist film theory were laid. As MacCabe put it in 1974: “Given Screen ’s commitment to theoretical understanding of film, the magazine has been engaged over the last five years in racial conclusion, the elaboration of the various advances in semiotics, structuralism, psychoanalysis and drug essays, Marxism.” 1 It is this blend that has been endlessly reiterated in research, the precincts of academic film studies. Anti! Across many years, it was the orthodoxy.
For many of us, that trend seemed and still seems “narrow and sterile.” Judge for yourself, based on this passage signed by teenage essay, MacCabe from the golden age of Screen : The problem is to anti abuse essays understand the terms of the construction of the abortion, subject and the modalities of the replacement of essays this construction in specific signifying practices, where “replacement” means not merely the repetition of the place of that construction but also, more difficultly, the supplacementthe overplacing: supplementation or, in certain circumstances, supplantation (critical interruption)of that construction in the place of its repetition. 2. It’s a remarkable sentence in many respects, but assuming that it can be explicated, what saves this intellectual project from narrowness and sterility? In the 1970s MacCabe declared that this theory was committed to Marx’s concept of class struggle. Exactly how Lacanian psychoanalysis was to assist the racial, class struggle, and why it should be preferred to other means of assisting that struggle, was never made clear in Screen . Anti! In any event, MacCabe trots this claim out again as another aim of #381;i#382;ek’s book, which “intervenes” in contemporary debates “without ever abandoning questions of class struggle and essays conclusion, the unconscious” (viiiix). Once more, neither MacCabe nor #381;i#382;ek explains why one cannot be a good socialist without reading Lacan. (More on this below.) MacCabe’s objections apply, he says, not to film historians, who have conducted “vital and important [sic] work” (vii). Drug Abuse Essays! This too harbors irony, since the Theoretical Correctness of Screen and its followers blocked historical research from grant writers for hire developing in the 1970s.
Primary-document history was labeled “empiricist” and “positivist,” Screen published almost no such work, and for anti drug abuse essays, decades afterward, many historians feared being attacked for their lack of Grand Theory acumen. Efforts to study early cinema history, the history of the U.S. film industry, and the like emerged in writers for hire, quite different venues from the BFI publications. Now, however, MacCabe welcomes historical research as an area of film studies. Rather, it’s film theory that has become inert, “either banally rehashed or obtusely opposed” (viii). Though MacCabe isn’t specific, it seems that the obtuse opposition is incarnated in anti abuse essays, “ ‘Post#8209;Theory’ and cognitivism” (viii). I say “seems” because this is essay honor relations sherif social as close as MacCabe gets to naming names: “For those followers of fashion who look for a retreat from Marx and Freud, a hideous mimicking of the threadbare nonsense of the ‘third way,’ this book will be a grave disappointment” (viii). Just parsing this cryptic sentence raises questions: What fashion dictates a retreat from drug abuse essays Marx and Freud?
One would think that Post#8209;Theory was sweeping the academy. And why didn’t MacCabe object to fashion when Screen theory was reiterated uncritically for decades? Presumably MacCabe finds Post#8209;Theory has parallels with Tony Blair and New Labour’s “Third Way.” 3 What are these affinities? What grounds can MacCabe have for racial profiling, linking ideas about drug abuse, cinema floated by Midwest college professors to a crisis in British politics, let alone finding the parallels “hideous”? In any event, what’s wrong with positing alternatives to intellectual positions? In any field of inquiry, can’t there be a third, or fourth, or fifth way of asking and answering questions?
Evidently MacCabe’s purpose isn’t to make a claim or back a case, merely to fulminate, but even his terms of abuse (“fashion,” “hideous,” “threadbare nonsense”) aren’t specific. Apart from reviving the allegiance of paper Lacan and class struggle, MacCabe says, “#381;i#382;ek’s account of Post#8209;Theory lays bare both its obvious fallacies and its more hidden vanities” (ix). On the contrary. Although MacCabe designated #381;i#382;ek his hitman, it’s more than a little surprising to find that at essays, nearly every opportunity #381;i#382;ek doesn’t engage with the substantive arguments of Post#8209;Theory at all. To Write A Dissertation! There are three essays in the anthology that directly criticize the drug, psychoanalytic project in relations, film theory: Stephen Prince’s “Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Problem of the Missing Spectator”; my “Contemporary Film Studies and anti drug abuse, the Vicissitudes of Grand Theory”; and Noël Carroll’s “Prospects for to teach thinking, Film Theory: A Personal Assessment.” How does #381;i#382;ek address the challenges these essays propose? His chief strategy consists of invective and rhetorical questions. “Does what [the Post#8209;Theory attacks] describe as Theory, or what they attribute to abuse Theory, not read as a comically simplified caricature of Lacan, Althusser et al? Can one really take seriously Noël Carroll’s description of Gaze theorists?” (4). #381;i#382;ek takes you no further. No argument, no evidence, just dismissal à la MacCabe.
Then, #381;i#382;ek asks, who are the “Lacanians” referred to in Post#8209;Theory ? “Except for essay, Joan Copjec, myself, and anti drug, some of my Slovene colleagues, I know of no cinema theorist who effectively accepts Lacan as his or her ultimate background” (2). He goes on to mention other writers, such as Laura Mulvey and Kaja Silverman, who accept Lacan’s descriptions of patriarchy but criticize him as a “phallogocentrist” (2). Summarize Research! What’s odd here is that Carroll, Prince, and I don’t attack “Lacanians”; the phrase is anti not to in intergroup muzafer relations sherif social be found in our essays. Prince concentrates on anti drug Freud, while Carroll discusses Lacan as one ingredient of 1970s and 1980s film theory. My essay emphasizes what I call subject-position theory, of which Lacanian doctrines form only teenage abortion, part. Drug! All three essays speak of psychoanalytic film theory and psychoanalytically inclined theorists. To use a term #381;i#382;ek employs often in FRT , one might say that the Lacanians in strategies critical skills, these essays exist only as his phantasms. In any event, he doesn’t try to abuse fight these phantoms by defending Lacan’s account of mental life against its many rivals. He accepts, as we’ll see shortly, key premises of Lacanianism on faith, as do many people he wouldn’t characterize as deep-dyed Lacanians. #381;i#382;ek’s complaints about lumping Lacanians together diverts our attention from the point at issue. Whether Lacan forms an teenage abortion essay, “ultimate background,” whatever that means, isn’t worth disputing. #381;i#382;ek knows perfectly well that a great many film scholars have cited Lacan and used his work to bolster theoretical or interpretive claims.
Although the three essays invoke many writers by name (and my essay analyzes one essay by the #381;i#382;ek-endorsed Lacanian Copjec), the crucial issue is the role Lacan’s theories play within the intellectual doctrines of contemporary film theory. This #381;i#382;ek doesn’t address. Once we get past rhetorical questions and diversionary tactics, #381;i#382;ek is given an excellent opportunity to engage with Post#8209;Theory by Stephen Prince’s essay. Prince argues, I think plausibly, that psychoanalysis lacks reliable data on which to build its theories. Records of the clinical session are available only to the analyst (yielding “nontraceable disclosures”); there are no established standards for interpreting the patient’s discourse; and the analyst inevitably filters the full range of the patient’s reports, summarizing and inflecting them in her interpretation. Abuse Essays! Prince then argues that these failings are present in Freud’s own classic paper, “A Child is Being Beaten.” Prince goes on to suggest that psychoanalytic theory of cinema is at a disadvantage because of its weak account of perception and its resolute ignoral of the ways in which cinema resembles the world, both of which can be better accounted for by rival theories. There are many things #381;i#382;ek (and MacCabe, the book’s patron) would object to here. But #381;i#382;ek never discusses any of them. It’s entirely possible that Prince has mischaracterized psychoanalytic method, or has misread Freud’s paper, or has misunderstood Lacanian film theory. But #381;i#382;ek doesn’t make any effort to show weaknesses in the essay.
He merely mocks the writers for hire michigan, title (p. Anti Abuse Essays! 1). Likewise, you’d think that he’d slice my essay to to write a dissertation ribbons. “Contemporary Film Studies” delineates two trends in the field, what I call subject-position theory (the Screen legacy) and culturalism. I trace those trends historically and try to show continuities between them. The conceptual continuities I argue for involve social constructivism, theories of anti drug abuse essays subjectivity, the centrality of teenage essay identification, and an underlying commitment to semiotics. I also argue that subject-position adherents and culturalists follow similar argumentative routines, notably a commitment to doctrine-driven inquiry, a fondness for pasting together ideas from anti quite divergent theorists, a reliance on association rather than linear reasoning, and a commitment to abortion essay hermeneutic applications of drug abuse essays theory to films (producing “readings”). On each point I advance some critical remarks, including charges of teenage essay self-contradiction. A philosopher ought to be rubbing his hands at the prospect of going after this essay. I could be vulnerable from many angles. #381;i#382;ek could attack my characterization of Freud, Lacan, and the rest; my critiques of same; and above all my outline of the anti drug, two trends. Most important, although I didn’t have #381;i#382;ek in mind when I wrote the essay, he himself instantiates all the conceptual commitments and rhetorical habits I criticize.
His work is for hire michigan a pastiche of many, widely varying intellectual sources (from Ernest Laclau to Stephen Jay Gould). Anti Drug Essays! He is an associationist par excellence. His use of films is purely hermeneutic, with each film playing out allegories of theoretical doctrines. Honor In Intergroup Muzafer Relations Social! And he never doubts his masters Hegel and Lacan, exemplifying the tendency I characterize this way: “The pronouncements of Lacan, Althusser, Baudrillard, et cie are often simply taken on faith” (21). Abuse! So my complaints should strike very close to home. Yet not a peep from #381;i#382;ek on any of these points. If I’m right, his theoretical program is seriously on the wrong track, but he feels no obligation to engage with my claims. This isn’t the thinker MacCabe says is “determined to follow the logic of any concept or text through to its bitter or sweet end” (FRT, viii). 4. Carroll and research paper, #381;i#382;ek 1: Reply as Confirmation. #381;i#382;ek is a philosopher, so perhaps we’d expect him to engage most fully with another of his profession. Noël Carroll’s essay “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment” presents criticisms that are severe and drug, pointed.
Carroll argues that proponents of Grand Theory embrace a monolithic conception of theorizing, conflate theorizing with interpreting specific films, use political correctness to attack their opponents, unwontedly charge opponents with “formalism,” and exhibit a bias against the concept of truth. Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek responds to not a single one of these charges. Teenage Abortion Essay! He doesn’t, contra MacCabe, lay bare any fallacies, nor does he mount what he promises in anti abuse, his introduction will be a “critical dialogue with cognitivist/historicist Post#8209;Theory” (7). What he does lay bare, apparently all unawares, are statements wide open to Carroll’s objections. Here is Carroll: Proponents of the Theory let on preparing that the Theory grew out of the student movement and out of anti drug abuse essays a resistance to oppression everywhere. Consequently, from strategies critical thinking their point of drug abuse essays view, criticism of the Theory virtually represents a clear and present danger to the very Revolution itself. Anyone who opposes the in intergroup sherif, Theory, for whatever reason, is politically suspect.
Criticisms of the dubious psychoanalytic premises of the Theory are denounced as reactionaryin a political sense!as if a belief in the equality of races requires assent to Lacan and the rest of the anti abuse, pet paraphernalia of the preparing to write, Theory. Anti Abuse! (45). MacCabe’s evocation of the class struggle in his introduction strikes this note, as does #381;i#382;ek’s promise to show how Kieslowski’s work, “the site of antagonistic ideological tensions [sic], of the ‘class struggle in art’, can be redeemed by a Lacanian approach” (7). #381;i#382;ek begins his book by saying that the Post#8209;Theory trend is “often sustained by a stance of profound political resignation, by summarize paper, a will to obliterate the traces and disappointments of political engagement” (13). The one piece of evidence he supplies for this is startlingly shaky. #381;i#382;ek takes the scholar Ben Brewster as “emblematic of the present-day state of cinema theory” (13). Why? Because Brewster shifted from being a proponent of Screen theory to becoming a film historian displaying an “exclusive preoccupation with pre#8209;1917 cinema” (13). Why does this matter?
Because Brewster focuses on a period “prior to the October Revolution, as if to emphasise the will to obliterate the trauma of the failed leftist involvement in Theory” (13). About #381;i#382;ek’s diagnosis that Brewster’s research constitutes a form of fetishistic disavowal reminiscent of anti drug abuse essays a reluctance to look at feminine genitals, I shall say nothing. I just want to point out that Brewster has not restricted his research to cinema before 1917, not even in the book #381;i#382;ek mentions in a footnote, 5 so the tenuous thread of association fails even as a literary conceit. On its first page, FRT presents a strained reach for grant writers michigan, cleverness at drug abuse essays, the expense of nuance and accuracy. We’ll encounter this strategy again.
For our theorists, politics equals left politics equals the glory years of summarize research May 1968 theory. Abuse! Marx is always invoked, with nods to Eurocommunism, Althusser, and, surprisingly, Mao. In 1974 MacCabe saluted the Chinese Cultural Revolution as proof that ideology remained a potent force. To Write! 6 In a recent DVD liner note on Godard’s Tout va bien , he describes the Cultural Revolution as Mao’s effort to have the drug abuse, Red Guards “revolt against the ruling state and party apparatus. The young were encouraged to racial conclusion question authority and to insist on the importance of the class struggle.” 7 MacCabe doesn’t mention that Mao stirred up the drug essays, young in order to regain his power over that same party apparatus, or that the Red Guards were not encouraged to question his authority, or that the teenage essay, ten years of Cultural Revolution shut down China’s education, exiled intellectuals to labor camps, destroyed centuries of cultural artifacts, killed hundeds of thousands of people, and ruined the lives of millions more. #381;i#382;ek also invokes the Great Helmsman: “To put it in good old Maoist terms, the anti drug essays, principal contradiction of summarize paper today’s cinema studies. To continue in a Maoist vein, I am tempted to[identify a given opposition] as the second, nonantagonistic contradiction of cinema studies, to drug abuse be resolved through discussion and self-criticism”(1, 2). Needless to say, why Maoism is good as well as old doesn’t concern #381;i#382;ekperhaps because, like many of his other citations, this tip of the hat to the cult of personality serves merely as an effort at knowing rhetoric. Certainly self-criticism doesn’t enter his text. So Carroll’s diagnosisthat theoretical sallies are often justified by an unwarranted link to skills a particular brand of politicsis borne out by the very book seeking to demolish Carroll’s views. Similarly, Carroll’s essay argues that in essays, general film theories don’t necessarily bear traces of the theorist’s political orientation. Essay! “I have evolved theories of movie music and point-of-view editing, but they do not, in any sense that could be called logical, imply my political position about anti essays, anything from in intergroup relations social gun control, to sexual harassment, to communal ownership of the drug essays, means of production” (46). The reason is racial profiling conclusion that theories generally underdetermine political viewpoints. “Given theories may be espoused by either the forces of drug abuse essays light or the strategies critical thinking, forces of darkness” (47).
We might expect this to arouse a sustained critique from #381;i#382;ek, who obviously doesn’t believe in abuse, the underdetermination of theories; but no such luck. He remains silent. There’s yet another moment in summarize paper, which #381;i#382;ek confirms Carroll’s critique. Essays! Carroll’s essay criticizes totalizing conceptions of theory: Under its aegis, the film theorist sets out to subsume every aspect of racial cinematic phenomena under the putative laws and categories of his or her minimally customized version of the drug abuse essays, reigning orthodoxy. Theorizing becomes the routine application of some larger, unified theory to questions of cinema, which procedure unsurprisingly churns out roughly the grant for hire, same answers, or remarkably similar answers, in every case.
The net result, in short, is theoretical impoverishment (41). And here is #381;i#382;ek, claiming that Post#8209;Theory. starts to behave as if there were no Marx, Freud, semiotic theory of ideology, i.e. Abuse! as if we can magically return to some kind of naivete before things like the unconscious, the overdetermination of our lives by the decentred symbolic processes, and so forth became part of our theoretical awareness (14). #381;i#382;ek can’t entertain the prospect that ideas can be “part of our theoretical awareness” and still be invalid. Suppose, just suppose, that all these “things”points of doctrineare shot through with conceptual and summarize, empirical mistakes. This is what Prince, Carroll, and I are saying. We don’t ignore this theory; we criticize it.
Being skeptical about weak theories isn’t a return to innocence. Anti Abuse! It’s an advance; it can cast out error. The task is teenage abortion essay not to abuse call us naïve but rather to in intergroup muzafer relations sherif social show that the unconscious, the overdetermination of so on and so forth remain valid ideas. The way to show this is not by anti drug abuse, waxing nostalgic for the days when everyone read Althusser, but by overcoming our criticisms. Yet in #381;i#382;ek’s hands, confirming Carroll’s objections once more, Lacanian theory functions as a set of axioms or dogmas rather than working ideas to essays be subjected to critical discussion. Anti Drug Essays! Post#8209;Theory argues against strategies to teach skills, the very idea of Theory and supports the idea of theories and theorizing (p. Drug Abuse Essays! xiv).
Theories operate at many levels of generality and tackle many different questions. Theorizing is a process of proposing, refining, correcting, and perhaps rejecting answers, in the context of a multidisciplinary conversation. But for #381;i#382;ek, the unconscious, the overdetermination of our lives, and all the rest is paper Theory entire and whole. No intellectual activity (save “historical research”) lives outside it, and it can be discussed only by anti abuse, those already accepting the premises of its sacred texts. And once the only correct Theory is packaged with the only correct political attitudes, you have a powerful weapon against anyone who differs. FRT confirms Carroll’s claim: “The Theory has been effectively insulated from sustained logical and empirical analysis by a cloak of political correctness” (45). Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 2: Dialectics of Inquiry and of Nature. #381;i#382;ek ignores almost all the substantive points Carroll makes in his essay. Profiling Essays Conclusion! The one issue he singles out is Carroll’s proposal that film studies should be more self-consciously dialectical.
Carroll explains at several points what he means by this. In his sense, dialectics is an alternative to the method #381;i#382;ek embraces, that of deriving a film theory from axioms or first principles. Instead, dialectical exchange is a form of debate, “defending one’s own theory by demonstrating that it succeeds where alternative theories falter” (56). More extensively: Theories are framed in specific historical contexts of research for the purpose of anti drug answering certain questions, and the relative strengths of essay relations sherif theories are assayed by comparing the answers they afford to the answers proposed by alternative theories. This conception of anti drug essays theory evaluation is pragmatic because: (1) it compares actual, existing rival answers to the questions at hand (rather than every logically conceivable answer); and (2) because it focuses on solutions to teenage abortion essay contextually motivated theoretical problems (rather than searching for answers to any conceivable question one might have about cinema) (56). #381;i#382;ek does object to Carroll’s point, but he misconstrues it.
He says that this conception of dialectics is “simply the notion of cognition as the gradual progress of abuse essays our always limited knowledge through the testing of specific hypotheses” (14). Now this is plainly not what the research paper, passage quoted above says. #381;i#382;ek eliminates the communal and comparative dimensions of inquiry Carroll invokes, and introduces “the testing of specific hypotheses.” He goes on to add that the process is “unending,” assigning to Carroll “a modest view of endless competive struggle” (15). But again, Carroll does not say that the process is infinite. He says that by anti drug abuse, eliminating error and mounting sound theories, we can arrive at reliable if approximate truths. These theories may stand for a long time; perhaps a better theory will never come along (58). “There is no reason to concede that we cannot also craft film theories in the here and now that are approximately true” (58). There is nothing inherently unending about this process. So #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood Carroll’s conception of dialectical inquiry. But that’s not all. Having rewritten Carroll’s claims, #381;i#382;ek blurts out: “Well, if this is dialectics, then Karl Popper, the essay honor in intergroup muzafer relations, most aggressive and dismissive critic of Hegel, was the greatest dialectician of them all!” (15). Anti Abuse Essays! This expostulation encapsulates many assumptions, all of them questionable. First, Carroll’s conception of theory-building doesn’t follow Popper, since Carroll has made no reference to falsifiability as the key criterion for conjecture and refutation.
Carroll’s view of collective problem-solving through debate is a far broader position in the philosophy of science than Popper’s account. Teenage Essay! Secondly, as Carroll points out in a subsequent version of anti essays his essay, “an unbiased examination of the history of philosophy will show, I believe, that Hegel has no patent on summarize dialectics.” 8 I’d go further and drug, observe that the a dissertation, concept of dialectic derives from ancient Greece, and it simply means “conversing.” Carroll is using the concept in its most basic and uncontroversial sense. #381;i#382;ek could have distinguished Carroll’s use from that of other thinkers, notably Hegel, but that would require a careful and painstaking response, not a cri de cœur . To assume that Hegel possesses the only valid concept of the dialectic is something of an undergraduate howler. Finally, Carroll uses the concept of the drug essays, dialectic as a regulative and pragmatic principle of honor in intergroup muzafer relations social inquiry. #381;i#382;ek, like Hegel, believes that the dialectic also exists in the world, as a constitutive principle of anti abuse nature, society, and indeed being itself. Thus #381;i#382;ek says that there is a dialectic informing the history of summarize research film style (pp. 2225). In this way, a particular version of anti abuse essays dialectical inquiry is justified by an ontological assumption. Judgment Muzafer Sherif! #381;i#382;ek brooks no dispute on this: again and again he refers to the “proper” use of dialecticsthe one forged by Hegel and, mysteriously, Freud (25).
But he nowhere defends Hegel’s idea of anti essays dialectic against the hosts of objections that have been raised by over a century of michigan critics; nor does he defend his somewhat idiosyncratic version of Hegel. 9 Another philosophical slip#381;i#382;ek confuses epistemic criteria with ontological onesand another moment at which a canonical thinker becomes a security blanket. #381;i#382;ek has one more cluster of objections to drug Carroll’s conception of dialectical theory-building. “Dialectics proper,” he says, is distinguished by racial conclusion, “the way the subject’s position of enunciation is anti drug abuse included, inscribed into the process: the cognitivist speaks from the safe position of the excluded observer who knows the relativity and limitation of all human knowledge, including his own” (15). These are presumably the “hidden vanities” to which MacCabe alludes. The easy answer to this claim is this: #381;i#382;ek uses enunciation theory as the basis for his objection. If you don’t accept a theory of abortion enunciation (which neither Carroll nor I do), the objection fails. (Note, in anti drug essays, passing, #381;i#382;ek’s invocation of enunciation theory rests upon the oft-cited liar paradox: the semantic contradiction involved in saying “I am lying” supposedly exemplifies split subjectivity in all of language.) The equally obvious riposte is that Carroll, cited above, doesn’t believe in the relativity of all human knowledge (he in fact argues against relativism) and instead argues that truth is to some degree attainable.
Once more #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood the claims he’s criticizing. #381;i#382;ek goes on to create a sort of to write theoretical ad hominem . Having ascribed “modesty” to drug abuse essays the position he attacks, he goes on to say that it’s actually an arrogant view. But he does this by again caricaturing the claims. “When I say, ‘The theory (which I am deploying) is just an impotent mental construct, while real life persists outside,’ or engage in summarize paper, similar modes of referring to the wealth of pre-theoretical experience, the apparent modesty of anti abuse such statements harbours the arrogant position of enunciation of the subject who assumes the capacity to compare a theory with ‘real life’” (15). In passing, I note that #381;i#382;ek here seems to equate the subject with an profiling essays, entity like an individual, capable of essays actions like assuming; but this is a philosophical error, as I point out in grant for hire, my Post#8209;Theory contribution (1415). Also in passing, I note that until #381;i#382;ek shows that enunciation theory is a plausible account of language or mental activity, his diagnosis, which wholly depends on this theory, need cause me no worries. More substantially, Carroll, Prince, and I never say or imply that our theoretical conjectures are “impotent mental constructs” when faced with the teeming reality outside our theories.
Where does he get this stuff? And what’s so arrogant about comparing a theory with real life? #381;i#382;ek does it all the time. Consider this passage from an interview, in anti, which #381;i#382;ek is asked about his fondness for Lenin’s theories: What I like in Lenin is precisely what scares people about him-the ruthless will to discard all prejudices. Why not violence? Horrible as it may sound, I think it’s a useful antidote to essay all the aseptic, frustrating, politically correct pacifism.
Let’s take the campaign against smoking in the U.S. I think this is a much more suspicious phenomenon than it appears to be. If #381;i#382;ek can apply Leninist politics of violence to anti-smoking legislation (will he found a Cheka to purge nonsmokers?), I assume that other theorists aren’t being arrogant in talking of essays how comparatively harmless movies relate to strategies critical thinking the world we live in. Anti Drug Abuse! Dialogue versus Monologue. Throughout #381;i#382;ek’s objections to Carroll’s notion of teenage abortion dialectical inquiry, one blind spot is evident. Anti! In his references to “testing hypotheses” and summarize research paper, the isolated “subject of enunciation,” in his accounts of dialectical thinking by the solitary theorist, he ignores the intersubjective dimension of theorizing. Dialectical inquiry proceeds because a researcher belongs to a community committed to both rational and empirical investigation.
Whatever one’s personal feelings about people arguing against you, the regulative ideal of a research community is respect for argumentation and evidence. Anti Drug Abuse Essays! People who don’t agree with you aren’t your enemies; their criticisms may be painful, but one cooperates with them in an effort to attain more conceptual precision and empirical adequacy. Preparing A Dissertation! Yet consider what #381;i#382;ek claims in drug abuse essays, another book, in commenting on an essay in Post#8209;Theory : Lenin liked to point out to write a dissertation that one could often get crucial insights into one’s own weaknesses from the perception of drug abuse intelligent enemies. So, since the current essay attempts a Lacanian reading of David Lynch’s Lost Highway , it may be useful to research start with a reference to “Post#8209;Theory,” the recent cognitivist orientation of anti abuse cinema studies that establishes its identity by a thorough rejection of Lacanian cinema studies. Judgment Muzafer Relations Social! 10. Lenin, of course, saw his political opponents as his enemies, and he dealt with them as such. But to drug abuse essays characterize one’s intellectual opponents this way is revealing of #381;i#382;ek’s attitude toward debate. One doesn’t cooperate with enemies.
Another regulative principle of collective truth-seeking is dialogue. Whatever their personal motives, scholars are united in seeking logically sound theories that illuminate a range of abortion essay phenomena. That’s what allows debate to flourish. When the community norms flag, debate withers and theory becomes a chorus of monologues. Anti Essays! Arguably, though, #381;i#382;ek fails to grasp the intersubjective dimension of theorizing because he doesn’t believe in theory as a conversation within a community, a process of strategies critical thinking skills question and answer and rebuttal. This construal of his attitude toward theory fits what we know of his intellectual demeanor. Consider these reports from an admiring journalist: 11. Bearded, disheveled, and loudBarely pausing to sit down, #381;i#382;ek launches into a monologue so learned and amusing that it could very well appearverbatimin one of the many books he has written (42). “Discussing Hegel and Lacan is like breathing for Slavoj.
I’ve seen him talk about theory for four hours straight without flagging,” says UCBerkeley’s Judith Butler. When not mediated by the printed page, however, the obsessive-compulsive quality that makes his hyperkinetic prose so exhilarating is somewhat overwhelmingeven, evidently, for #381;i#382;ek himself. Drug Abuse Essays! Popping the occasional Xanax to settle his nerves, he tells me about his heart problems and panic attacks. As his eyes dart around the room and his manic monologue becomes more frantic, I fear that I may be his last interviewer. #381;i#382;ek is like a performance artist who is terrified of abandoning the stage; once he starts talking, he seems unable to stop (42). Racial Profiling Essays! #381;i#382;ek has developed an elaborate set of psychological tricks to manipulate his American students and enable him to have as little contact with them as possible. Abuse! At the first meeting of each course, he announces that all students will get an A and should write a final paper only if they want to. “I terrorize them by conclusion, creating a situation where they have no excuse for giving me a paper unless they think it is really good. This scares them so much, that out of forty students, I will get only a few papers,” he says. “And I get away with this because they attribute it to my ‘European eccentricity.’ ” #381;i#382;ek says that he deals with student inquiries in a similar spirit. Anti Drug Abuse! “I understand I have to summarize take questions during my lectures, since this is America and everybody is allowed to talk about everything. But when it comes to office hours, I have perfected a whole set of strategies for how to block this,” he says with a smirk. “The real trick, however, is to abuse essays minimize their access to me and simultaneously appear to be even more democratic!” Initially, #381;i#382;ek scheduled office hours immediately before class so that students could not run on indefinitely. Then he came up with the idea of teenage abortion essay requiring them to submit a written question in advance, on the assumption that most would be too lazy to do it (they were). #381;i#382;ek reserves what he calls “the nasty strategy” for large lecture classes in which the students often don’t know one another. Drug Abuse Essays! “I divide the time into paper, six twenty-minute periods and then fill in anti, the slots with invented names.
That way the students think that all the hours are full and I can disappear,” he claims (49). There’s a lot to digest hereparticularly the summarize research paper, rich image of a theorist who pronounces on all things political, historical, aesthetic, and drug essays, psychological criticizing Americans for essay, being “allowed to talk about anti, everything”but you don’t need to be either a cognitivist or a psychoanalyst to hazard one conclusion. An insistent monologist and strategies, a teacher confessing himself uninterested in student response might not be able to appreciate the community-driven nature of inquiry postulated by Post#8209;Theory . This, then, is what #381;i#382;ek’s “critical dialogue” with Post#8209;Theory amounts to. Once more Carroll proves prophetic: “Sustained, detailed, intertheoretical debate and criticism is rare in the history of film theoryNowadays this tendency is anti drug abuse particularly pronounced in discussions of racial essays cognitivism, which view is swiftly dismissed by anti essays, castigating buzz-words like ‘formalism,’ or maybe ‘idealism,’ uttered just before the author goes on essay honor relations to repeat, at anti abuse, length, yet again, the received wisdom of research Theory” (57). #381;i#382;ek obviously thinks that he has engaged in a critical dialogue, and he’s not alone. A review 12 of FRT praises #381;i#382;ek as “formidably well-read,” a “subtle theorist” able to operate “at the highest levels of psychological and drug essays, philosophical abstraction.” The book offers, in to teach thinking skills, the reviewer’s opinion, “A mode of aesthetic analysis that fully describes the most spectral and intangible [sic] of film without compromising the anti drug abuse essays, underlying theoretical rigor.” Everything I’ve said so far indicates that I can’t agree. Where are the subtleties? Where is the rigor? The reviewer doesn’t say, passing over the book’s avowedly theoretical chapters in a couple of paragraphs.
Perhaps the a dissertation, reviewer accepts #381;i#382;ek’s own conception of Post#8209;Theory . The reviewer says that #381;i#382;ek’s “fierce critique” rests on the idea that Post#8209;Theory “attempts to anti drug abuse essays move away from a reliance on a dissertation theory and back toward more empirical accounts of film.” Since anyone who read Post#8209;Theory would understand that we plead for better theories, not the elimination of theoretical work, I have to conclude that the reviewer relies on #381;i#382;ek’s characterization of the book’s project. And this is drug abuse essays a mistake, for #381;i#382;ek makes several errors. First, he claims that the Post#8209;Theory collection is “a kind of manifesto” of teenage cognitive film theory. 13 This flies in the face of the introduction to Post#8209;Theory , where Carroll and I say, “It needs to be stressed that though a number of the abuse, articles in this volume are cognitivist, the volume itself is not a primer in cognitivism. The unifying principle in this book is that all the research included exemplifies the possibility of scholarship that is not reliant upon essay muzafer sherif, the psychoanalytic framework that dominates film academia (xvi).” Moreover, there is anti essays cognitivist film theory that isn’t “post-theoretical”; presumably many people pursuing cognition-based answers to theoretical questions don’t reject psychoanalysis from the standpoint we adopt. Many psychologists studying filmic perception have probably never heard of Jacques Lacan. I conclude that #381;i#382;ek uses the term “Post#8209;Theory” to sum up a broad movement he takes to be emerging within film studies as the principal rival to summarize research the psychoanalytic (specifically, Lacanian) paradigm. Drug Abuse Essays! This makes a conveniently broad target, but only at skills, the expense of subtlety and anti, rigor. When #381;i#382;ek treats the research, Post#8209;Theory movement as “the cognitivist and/or historicist reaction” to Grand Theory ( FRT , 1), he displays a second confusion. Anti Drug Abuse Essays! To call the historical essays collected in critical thinking skills, Post#8209;Theory “historicist” is at best ambiguous. In the relevant sense, historicism involves the belief that concepts held by historical agents at a given time are sui generis and can’t be unproblematically translated into terms available at the historian’s moment.
For example, Foucault’s position in “What Is an Author?” can be described as historicist. He posits that the abuse essays, modern concept of the author came into existence at a particular time and place and can’t be presumed to essay operate in earlier circumstances. But historicism in this sense plainly isn’t advocated or even presupposed by the historians in the Post#8209;Theory collection; their essays don’t take a position on this issue. Drug Abuse! Of course it’s possible that #381;i#382;ek simply means to strategies thinking indicate that the essays are historical studies; but then he’s misusing the term “historicism.” As a philosopher, #381;i#382;ek should be committed to clarifying terms rather than fogging them. Abuse Essays! At some point someone is preparing likely to say that #381;i#382;ek is elusive because he’s playful. His flights of fancy try to get you to think outside the box; he’s a provocateur. I suppose this comes down to taste, but I find #381;i#382;ek not provocative at all. Praising Lacan, Lenin, and Mao seems to me not rebellion but a retread. And we come at some point to a matter of anti abuse sincerity.
When is he not being playful? When is profiling essays he putting forth a claim he’s committed to? For example, in FRT he proposes that pictures have two frames, one external, one internal, “the frame implied by the structure of the painting” (130). “These two frames by definition never overlap” (130). Drug Essays! 14 Yet in grant writers, his prologue, #381;i#382;ek explains that at a conference, asked to comment on a picture, he “engaged in a total bluff” (5) by positing the existence of these two frames. He goes on to make fun of people who took it seriously: To my surprise, this brief intervention was a huge success, and many following participants referred to the dimension in-between-the-two-frames, elevating it into a term. This very success made me sad, really sad.
What I encountered here was not only the efficiency of a bluff, but a much more radical apathy at the very heart of anti abuse essays today’s cultural studies (6). The postmodern emperor doesn’t need a child in the crowd to paper point out his nakedness; he does so himself, and essays, mourns the fact that he fooled so many. But the question nags us: Are we to believe the two-frames theory when it’s floated later in the book? Evidently not, since it’s admittedly a bluff. But perhaps #381;i#382;ek really believes the theory, so that in the prologue, when he says that his theory is a bluff, he’s bluffing. This compels us to ask: Might not everything he says about essay sherif, Lacan, Post#8209;Theory, and the rest be a bluff akin to abuse essays the two-frames bluff? No wonder #381;i#382;ek takes the Liar’s Paradox to be the prototype of language use. What others might find a dizzying display of academic cleverness makes me sad too, but perhaps in a different way. Teenage! Are we wasting our time in anti essays, expecting #381;i#382;ek to offer reasonable arguments? Fundamental questions of responsibility arise here, especially in relation to a writer not hesitant to condemn the beliefs and actions of essay honor in intergroup relations sherif others.
It’s tedious to abuse be lectured on morality and teenage, ethics from someone who casually announces petty acts of deceit, like sneaking out of office hours or fooling gullible academics who are eager to take a master’s every word as a revelation. “Well,” #381;i#382;ek or a sympathetic reviewer might ask me, “can’t we say that he engages seriously and straightforwardly with your claims? He has much to say about your book, On the History of Film Style and your claims about contingent universals in one essay of Post#8209;Theory .” He does indeed. Anti Essays! I was surprised, however, that when he turns on his analytical powers, how little his objections amount to. I’ve made my reply in Figures Traced in Light (260264), so I won’t rehash it here. I think I show that when #381;i#382;ek tries to be serious and dismantle an argument critically, the results are vague, digressive, equivocal, contradictory, and either obviously inaccurate or merely banal. This might explain why he so seldom tries to be analytical.
Vagueness, digressions, equivocations, etc. are less apparent if you’re playful. But we can forgive all this, others will reply, because #381;i#382;ek is such a lively writer. Recall that Boynton, above, calls his prose “hyperkinetic” and “exhilarating,” and summarize research paper, names him “a dazzlingly acute thinker and prose stylist.” Frankly, I can’t imagine Boynton and I are reading the same writer. As with many contemporary theorists, #381;i#382;ek’s dominant register is what Frederick Crews has called ponderous coyness. 15 His humor is academic, and academic humor is to humor as military intelligence is to drug essays intelligence.
As for the texture of the prose, try to find the acuteness and summarize, hyperkinesis here: The underlying principle and support of this thesis of the symbolic order is that, in each field of meaning, if this field is to anti essays be ‘totalised,’ there has to be an additional/excessive signifier which, as it were, gives a positive figure to that which cannot be properly included into this field, somewhat like Spinoza’s well-known criticism of the traditional personalized notion of abortion God: at the point at which our positive knowledge of the causal links fails, we supplement this lack with the idea of ‘God,’ which, instead of providing a precise idea of a cause, just fills in the lack of this idea. ( FRT , 6465). Not only is essays this an teenage essay, obscure and pretentious way of recycling a familiar post-Structuralist idea, the drug abuse, sentences aren’t minimally well-written. (I grant that “as it were” is a nice touch, as if the entire passage weren’t built on metaphors and supposition.) In all, this writing style isn’t a good way to achieve #381;i#382;ek’s goal of distinguishing “Theory proper” from “its jargonistic imitation” ( FRT , 5). What makes people think that #381;i#382;ek writes gracefully, I think, is the casual way he drops in movies, current event, and preparing, homely examples. So this: “These partial objets petit a are neither subjective nor objective, but the short-circuit of the two dimensions: the subjective stain/stand-in that sustains the order of anti abuse essays objectivity, and the objective ‘bone in teenage essay, the throat’ that sustains subjectivity” ( FRT , 65) is followed by: “Does this not provide the reason why, in so-called caper films?” ( FRT , 66). A stretch of churned mud is anti abuse softened by a stream of colorful, if far-fetched, examples. Cutely illustrating an ontological concept through mundane instances seems to make for a user-friendly approach.
In every appreciation of #381;i#382;ek, there is a sentence somewhere marveling at grant writers for hire, how his vision sweeps from lofty abstraction to anti drug abuse essays pop-culture examples. “He takes in subjects including national cuisines, the Cathar heresy and the literature and film of the GDR, citing Plato, Hegel, Derrida, Heidegger and more” (Monroe, “Fright of Real Theory”). To Teach Critical Thinking! But such potshot erudition is in fact quite easy to achieve. If academics are this easily impressed by name-dropping, no wonder #381;i#382;ek’s bluffs find success. And from this standpoint, #381;i#382;ek’s claim that correct thought moves from universal concepts to singular manifestations can be seen to serve the strategic purpose of justifying his grandiloquent rhetorical leaps from the sublime to the ridiculous, from Leninist strictures on violence to anti-smoking legislation. Finally, I’m left with the question: Why do #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe elevate a single anthology ( Post#8209;Theory ) into a movement (Post#8209;Theory)? The book has won little attention, and essays, no one else has built it into a mighty opposite to Lacanian theory.
I can only speculate. My hunch is that both #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe see intellectual work as a struggle for power. Recall their admiration for the likes of Lenin and Mao, note their rhetoric of enemies and obtuse opposition, and preparing a dissertation, then observe that other passages suggest that by calling for conceptual and empirical theorizing, Post#8209;Theory aligns itself with science. Anti Abuse! And science is a threat. Essay Honor In Intergroup Judgment Sherif! After telling us that no quantum physicists worry about the anti abuse, ontology of what they observe (I suspect this will depend on what you mean by ontology), #381;i#382;ek complains: The objectivised language of experts and scientists. . Grant For Hire! .can no longer be translated into the common language, available to everyone, but is present in it in the mode of fetishized formulae that no one really understands, but which shape our artistic and popular imaginary (Black Hole, Big Bang, Superstrings, Quantum Oscillations). The gap between scientific insight and common sense is drug abuse essays unbridgeable, and it is this very gap which elevates scientists into the popular cult-figures of the ‘subjects supposed to essay honor relations know’ (the Stephen Hawking phenomenon) ( FRT , 67). As usual, any few lines of #381;i#382;ek demand both glossing and interrogation.
He starts by talking about anti drug abuse, common language, then shifts to talking about common sense; but the two aren’t the same. Racial Profiling! Although many scientific ideas violate common sense, they can be put in drug, intelligible language. Can it really be said that science writers like Stephen Gould, Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Jared Diamond, Deborah Blum, Helena Cronin, John Gribbin, and James Gleick can’t explain difficult scientific concepts to readers prepared to teenage abortion spend a little time thinking? Moreover, given #381;i#382;ek’s tortured style, does he seem to drug essays have any regard for writing in a “common language, available to everyone”? And if it’s wrong for scientists to essay in intergroup muzafer sherif be elevated as “subjects supposed to know,” why isn’t the same stricture applied, say, to Freud and Lacan, who have become far more Delphic oracles than Einstein or Hawking? Or even applied to the “popular cult-figure” of the larger-than-life, I-am-ze-bull European intellectual who says outrageous things in order to rouse us from our bourgeois slumber? Needless to anti drug essays say, #381;i#382;ek is strategically vague; his comments evoke attitudes, not arguments. Nor does he mention that, whatever cult value may attend to scientists in the popular press, the general public remains remarkably resistant to scientific findings and honor judgment muzafer, scientific thinking. Most Americans believe in angels and a literal place called Hell.
Most accept astrology, consider the theory of evolution unfounded, and think that dinosaurs and humans lived at the same time. This state of affairs, surely related to the class struggle, won’t be changed by another gloss on the concept of suture. Someone will remark that at least #381;i#382;ek loves movies. To this there’s an easy reply. Who doesn’t? 1 : Colin MacCabe, “Days of Hope-A Response to anti Colin McArthur,” Screen 17, 1 (Spring 1976), 103. 2 : Ben Brewster, Stephen Heath, and Colin MacCabe, “Comment,” Screen 16, 2 (Summer 1975), 87.
3 : Thanks to Benjamin Noys for pointing this out to me. 4 : I can’t resist adding that #381;i#382;ek’s third chapter, devoted to the notion of suture, misses another opportunity. Instead of teenage recycling confused 1960s and 1970s claims about point-of-view cutting, he could have attacked the cognitivist criticisms of essays suture theory that I float in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison, 1985), 110113. 5 : Ben Brewster and to teach, Lea Jacobs, Theatre to Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and anti abuse, the Early Feature Film (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). See the many discussions of 1917 releases in teenage, the book, as well as the anti abuse essays, analysis of (1919), 133-136. See also Ben Brewster, “The Circle: Lubitsch and the Theatrical Farce Tradition,” Film History 13, 4 (2001), 372389. Racial Essays! 6 : Ben Brewster and Colin MacCabe, “Editorial: Semiology and essays, Sociology,” Screen 15, 1 (Spring 1974), 78. 7 : Colin MacCabe, “Postscript to grant for hire May 1968,” Tout va bien program booklet, Criterion DVD no. Anti Drug Essays! 275 (2005), 20. 9 : I say idiosyncratic because #381;i#382;ek says (and he’s apparently not being playful here): “The basic rule of dialectics is to teach thinking skills thus: whenever we are offered a simple enumeration of subspecies of a universal species, we should always look for the exception to the series” (27).
I’m not sure that Hegel would agree that this is the anti, basic rule, but it’s a good research strategy. Always look out for counterexamples to universal claimsespecially those made by psychoanalytic theory! Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek goes on: “For example, it is essay in intergroup sherif my conjecture that the key to Hitchcock’s entire opus [sic] is the film which is integral and at the same time an exception. The Trouble with Harry (1954)” (27). Anti Essays! Ontology and epistemology, not argued for but rather illustrated, and by a Hitchcock movie at that: such is the grant for hire, zigzag of the anti drug abuse, #381;i#382;ekian dialectic. 11 : All these quotations come from Robert S. Boynton, “Enjoy Your #381;i#382;ek!” Lingua Franca 8, 7 (October 1998): 4150. 12 : Alexei Monroe, “The Fright of Real Theory,” in Kinoeye: New Perspectives on michigan European Film , available at essays, http:/www.kinoeye.org/01/04/monroe04.php.
14 : To be fussily philosophical, if this distinction is true “by definition” it can only be a deductive truth (which it obviously isn’t) or a stipulative definition posited by the speaker. If it’s the latter, we require further conceptual or empirical proof that the stipulation is essay honor judgment sherif reasonable. #381;i#382;ek provides none. 15 : Frederick Crews, “‘Kafka Up Close’: An Exchange,” New York Review of Books (7 April 2005), 80. have comments about the state of this website? go here.
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Rhetorical . Approaches To College Writing. Plymouth, MI: Hayden McNeil, 2013. Print ISBN: 9780738046693 • Cohen, Samuel. Anti Drug Abuse! 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology ISBN-13: 978-0312609658 • Graff, Gerald and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say/I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing with Readings ISBN-13: 978-0393912753 • Blackboard Readings – These can be found on Blackboard. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Blog 2141 Words | 7 Pages.
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