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My Favourite Holiday - топик на английском - Native English
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Тема "Мой любимый праздник" (My favourite holiday) - Английский
lilo resume Lilo Stitch , le 42me long-mtrage des Walt Disney Animation Studios , est assurment leur film le plus dtonnant et le plus original. My Favorite Essay. Mlange de science-fiction, de contre exotique, de cynisme grinant, de ralit sociale, de bons sentiments et de personnages dcals ultra-attachants, il s’en dgage, en effet, une atmosphre particulire qui lui donne un charme et une force incroyable. Is The. Il est un classique du label des annes 2000, et n’en pas douter, le meilleur du studio entre Kuzco, l'Empereur Mgalo et La Princesse et la Grenouille. L’Histoire aimant se rpter : pour Lilo Stitch , les studios Disney se trouvent, peu ou prou, dans la mme situation que lors de la production de Dumbo, quelques 60 annes plus tt. Essay. Ils sortent d’abord d'une longue priode de films ambitieux (Tarzan, Fantasia 2000, Dinosaure et Atlantide, L'Empire Perdu), presque tous mal accueillis commercialement. Poverty Essay Fake. Ils viennent ensuite de raviser leur prtention pour Kuzco, l'Empereur Mgalo en rduisant la voilure outrance. My Favorite. Ils souhaitent, enfin et dsormais, mettre sur les rails un projet plus modeste techniquement, moins pique, centr sur ses personnages tout en tant original et fruit de la vision personnelle d'un ralisateur. Is The Thesis Sentence In. Un virage 180° que ne connait d’ailleurs pas La Plante au Trsor - Un Nouvel Univers, sorti aprs Lilo Stitch , qui en restant dans le crdo de ses prdcesseurs, se plante lamentablement ! Ils dcident pour cela de faire confiance un de leur jeune artiste, Chris Sanders, et de confier entirement la production leur studio de Floride qui signe ainsi son deuxime Grand Classique Disney aprs Mulan.
Christopher Michael dit Chris Sanders est n le 12 mars 1962 dans le Colorado. My Favorite Holiday. Aprs des tudes CalArts, dont il sort diplm en 1984, il travaille quelques temps pour Marvel Productions sur la srie Les Muppet Babies . An Nco Essay. Il rentre finalement aux studios Disney en 1987 et travaille sur Bernard et Bianca au Pays des Kangourous puis sur le scnario de La Belle et la Bte. My Favorite Holiday. Il participe ensuite aux projets Mickey Perd la Tte et Fantasia 2000 sur la squence des Pins de Rome , puis rejoint l'quipe de scnaristes du (Le) Roi Lion et de Mulan. Fake. Lilo Stitch est ainsi son premier long-mtrage en tant que ralisateur. My Favorite. Il travaille par la suite sur le projet American Dog quand le rachat de Pixar par Disney vient le stopper dans son lan. Court Essay Papers. Il se trouve, en effet, que John Lasseter, qui prend alors la direction du dpartement animation de la nouvelle entit, dteste Lilo Stitch qu'il considre trop peu disneyen son got.
Il n’entend donc pas voir American Dog prendre le mme chemin et demande logiquement Chris Sanders de revoir sa copie. My Favorite. Mais les exigences du nouveau patron sont telles que l’artiste prend ombrage et juge les modifications exiges de lui par trop loignes de sa propre vision du film. Thesis Statement Sentence. Le bras de fer se termine par son dpart de Disney, en 2007, aprs 20 ans de bons et loyaux services. Holiday. American Dog est alors confi par John Lasseter Byron Howard et Chris Williams, deux ex-collaborateurs du ralisateur dmissionnaire. Poverty. Le projet devient Volt, Star Malgr Lui.
Chris Sanders part, quant lui, la concurrence chez Dreamworks Animation o il ralise Dragons , considr par beaucoup comme l’un des meilleurs films du studio l’enfant pcheur de la Lune. Holiday. Le paradoxe veut que Chris Sander est encore toujours aujourd’hui l’affiche de l’attraction The Art of during war 2 Disney Animation dans les parcs Disney's Hollywood Studios, Walt Disney Studios et Hong-Kong Disneyland o il donne la rplique Mushu pour expliquer aux visiteurs le savoir-faire de Disney ! Pour Lilo Stitch , Chris Sanders part d’une ide qui lui trotte dans la tte depuis le milieu des annes 80. Holiday Essay. C’est d’ailleurs l’origine un projet de livre pour enfants qu’il ne parvient pas placer chez un diteur. Black Money. Il se rsout donc la transposer au cinma. Essay. Son ide originelle porte ainsi sur un tre trange, surement extra-terrestre, rpondant au nom de Stitch, qui se retrouve sur Terre au milieu d’animaux qui le rejettent : une sorte de Vilain Petit Canard moderne ! Thomas Schumacher, alors prsident du dpartement de l'animation de Disney, coute attentivement le jeune artiste lui exposer sa trame et lui confie bien vite que son ide, si bonne soit-elle, comporte une erreur narrative de taille : placer Stitch au milieu des animaux ne lui permet pas, en effet, de le diffrencier suffisamment avec les autres cratures ! Il lui propose donc de l’inviter chez les humains. World War 2. Chris Sanders trouve dans cette proposition le dclic qui lui manquait. Holiday. Il pense immdiatement une petite fille qui deviendra Lilo ! Avec un livre illustr l'aquarelle, il finit de convaincre les dirigeants du studio de Mickey. Respect An Nco. Roy E. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Disney lui donnera un dernier conseil : que Stitch ne soit pas un voleur au sein d'un gang men par Jumba, et ce, afin de rendre sa transformation de personnalit plus crdible ! Il devient ainsi une exprience gntique, cre par Jumba, et programme tre mauvaise et solitaire : la rdemption est donc toute disneyenne puisque Stitch est cens tre un « mchant » malgr lui ! Durant tout le processus de cration, Chris Sanders est aid par Dean DeBlois au poste de coralisateur. N le 7 juin 1970 Aylmer au Canada, ce dernier commence sa carrire Hinton Animation Studios o il travaille comme animateur sur The Raccoons et The Teddy Bear's Picnic . Respect An Nco. Il rejoint ensuite Don Bluth au Sullivan Bluth Studios en Irlande, notamment pour les films Poucelina et Le Lutin Magique . Holiday. Son premier projet chez les studios Disney consiste travailler sur le scnario du Mulan. Poverty Essay Fake. En 2007, au sortir de la crise entre Chris Sanders et John Lasseter, il dcide lui aussi de passer la concurrence et rejoindre Dreamworks Animation o il retrouve son ami aux cots duquel il coralisera Dragons . Dans l’ide d’offrir Stitch l’exposition suffisante pour une mise en valeur optimale, les ralisateurs se mettent au tout dbut du projet la recherche d'un lieu la fois suffisamment recul et ferm pour « isoler la bte » mais aussi suffisamment riche pour convaincre le spectateur de suivre ses aventures.
Dans un premier temps, ils envisagent ainsi de situer l'action dans la campagne amricaine, au fin fond d’un tat recul l’exemple du Kansas ou du Kentucky. My Favorite. Pas totalement convaincus, ils poursuivent leurs investigations pour finalement dcrocher la timbale. Is The Thesis Sentence In. L’ide de situer l'action sur l'le d'Hawa est, en effet, l’vidence le petit plus qui change tout ! Elle offre aussi bien l’aspect « lieu ferm » ncessaire la rvlation de Stitch mais aussi une identit culturelle appuye pour participer son panouissement. Holiday. Mieux encore, l'archipel amricain jamais vu dans un Grand Classique Disney donne au film un ton indit. Un temps dnommes « les Sandwich » en l'honneur de leur protecteur, John Montagu, quatrime comte de Sandwich, les iles d’Hawa constituent donc un archipel de la Polynsie qui fait partie gographiquement d’un vaste ensemble couvrant une grande partie du Pacifique et formant le triangle polynsien, dont les extrmits sont Hawa au nord, l’le de Pques au sud-est et la Nouvelle-Zlande au sud-ouest. Money In Pakistan. L’archipel d’Hawa compte ainsi huit les principales, alignes du nord-ouest au sud-est sur 2400 km : Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui et Hawa (appel aussi «Big Island» ou «Grande-le»). My Favorite Essay. Hawa devient le cinquantime tat des USA le 21 aot 1959 avec pour capitale Honolulu, situe dans l'le d'Oahu. Court Essay. Dcouvert par l'explorateur anglais James Cook en 1778, l’archipel se peuple l’origine ds le Ve sicle par des Polynsiens qui y dveloppent une culture originale.
Estims 300 000 en 1778, les natifs hawaens ne sont plus que 40 000 en 1893, dcims par les flaux et maladies imports par la civilisation. My Favorite. Ils restent pour autant trs attachs leurs traditions. Essay Black Money. La pratique de l’He'enalu, connue mondialement sous le nom de surf, rassemble par exemple sur les plages, les jours de houle, des villages entiers. Holiday Essay. Le Hula (danse excute pour satisfaire les dieux), le Ukulele (instrument cordes pinces), les chemises imprimes et les colliers de fleurs sont galement des symboles fort de l’art de vivre unique et inimitable des Hawaens qui ne peut, pour autant, se rduire des images de cartes postales mais bien au contraire porte en lui des valeurs spirituelles fondamentales telles que l'humilit, le respect, le partage, l'coute des anciens et la relation la nature ; le tout rsum en un seul mot : Aloha. L'autre grande notion que vhiculent et dfendent les authentiques Hawaiiens est celle de la famille. Essay. Elle est, en effet, un des piliers de leur socit, une de leurs valeurs essentielles. Essay. Ce principe ne recouvre d’ailleurs pas seulement les liens du sang, mais aussi ceux du cњur. Fake. Ils le dsignent sous le nom de Ohana. Holiday Essay. Ce terme symbolise ainsi la famille dans ce qu'elle a de plus prcieux.
Les ralisateurs l’ont bien compris en plaant au centre des motivations de Lilo cette volont de protection de sa cellule familiale, brise par le destin. Fake. Avec cela, ils donnent au film un ton foncirement moderne et actuel en dpeignant une ralit sociale jamais retranscrite dans un Grand Classique. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Non seulement, l'action de Lilo Stitch se droule l'poque contemporaine (chose suffisamment rare pour tre souligne dans la filmographie Disney), mais place aussi au centre du rcit une famille brinquebalante, outrancirement menace par l'Assistance Sociale mal quipe pour jauger de la ralit affective des protagonistes qui accumulent dcidment les difficults avec le chmage (Nani) ou l’exclusion (Stitch, Lilo) en ligne de mire. Supreme. Lilo Stitch est de la sorte un film raliste qui rend encore plus poignant son message sur la famille rsum en une formule par un Stitch poignant en toute fin : il arrive, en effet, toucher le spectateur avec quelques mots simples mais d’une force incroyable et d’une modernit exemplaire (et inhabituelle chez Disney). Disney oblige, et si dtonnant soit-il dans son ton, Lilo Stitch ne pouvait raisonnablement pas rester dans le seul registre mlodramatique. Holiday Essay. Il est donc perfus l’humour, assis sur un bon zeste de science-fiction ml une belle dose de cynisme.
La mchancet annonce de Stitch est ainsi l’origine de nombreuses scnes drolissimes comme celle o il construit une rplique de San Francisco pour mieux se livrer sa destruction ou quand il s’vertue jouer le petit chien modle alors que son instinct reprend toujours le dessus sur ses bonnes intentions. Thesis Statement Sentence In. Enfin, l'action, trs prsente dans le film avec ses squences de poursuite en ouverture et conclusion, fait le reste et offre, ds lors, un opus enjou et rythm. Ambitieux dans sa dynamique mlodramatique, Lilo Stitch parvient, de la sorte, toujours conserver une forte intensit, alors mme que sa trame ne s'assoit pas sur l'ternel affrontement des bons contre les mchants. Holiday. Ses personnages sont dans ce contexte vritablement attachants ; les duos fonctionnant plein : de Lilo et Stitch Jumba et Pikly en passant par Nani et son petit ami David ; tous amnent le spectateur du rire l'motion. Trs raliste dans sa transcription des difficults que peut rencontrer une famille brise par le destin, le film dresse d’abord le portrait touchant d'une petite fille meurtrie par le dcs de ses parents et qui peine reprendre une vie normale. During Essay. Anime de main de matre par le talentueux Andreas Deja, Lilo, qui reste une enfant exubrante et pleine d'espoir, subit, en effet, la solitude de celle qui n’est pas comme les autres. Holiday. D’abord parce qu’elle est orpheline et ensuite parce que ses passions sont pour le moins envahissantes. Court. Son amour pour le King, Elvis Presley, ou son obstination prendre les gens en photo lui suscitent ainsi l’incomprhension de son entourage. Holiday. Tous ses excs sont en ralit rechercher dans le coup du sort qui a boulevers sa vie jamais en la privant de ses parents, la forant grandir plus vite, s’affirmer pour rsister l’adversit ou simplement faire face aux sentiments qui l’assaillent. An Nco. L’une des scnes qui montre parfaitement la personnalit de Lilo est celle o elle cloue la porte d’entre de la maison familiale. Holiday Essay. Elle est alors allonge seule sur le sol du salon, dans la position du mort, et coute du Elvis, puis rpond sa sњur qui, bloque dehors, a pass sa tte par la chatire : Laisse moi mourir en paix . In. Difficile de faire plus poignant dans la dimension mlodramatique du personnage ! Exprience 626 ( prononcer « six-deux-six ») est l'identit sous laquelle Stitch voit le jour.
Il est l'unique crature de son espce, fruit d'une exprience illgale extraterrestre conue dans le seul objectif de dtruire ce qui l’entoure. Essay. Une fois sur Terre, son instinct de survie l’emporte pourtant sur celui de destruction : il s’acharne alors trouver un moyen de se fondre dans son nouvel environnement pour sa propre scurit. Evacuation War 2. Il va pour cela jusqu’ modifier son apparence en rsorbant une des deux paires de bras dont il est dot et rtractant ses pines dorsales et antennes : il prtend de la sorte tre un chien en attente d’adoption. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Il est amusant d’ailleurs de noter qu’il trompe son monde avec les humains mais pas du tout avec ses collgues canins du refuge SPA. Supreme Court. Sa rencontre avec Lilo va finir de le changer jamais. Holiday. C’est l que se situe tout l’intrt du personnage ! Il revt, en effet, une ambivalence remarquable, mi tre diabolique, mi peluche de bambin qui le rend terriblement humain et proche des sensibilits contemporaines. Evacuation During World. Dans un monde empli de cynisme, son mlange d'humour noir, de navet et de mchancet contrebalanc par son introspection personnelle, en fait un personnage devenu l’un des plus aims de la galaxie Disney aux cts des toons historiques que sont Mickey et Winnie. Essay. Une belle et franche russite ! A l’image des rles-titres, les autres personnages de l’opus ne sont pas en reste. Nani, l’aine de Lilo, en est, 19 ans, devenue sa tutrice lgale. Authority Names Thesis. Elle fait ainsi tout pour garder la tte hors de l'eau mme si elle est clairement dpasse par les vnements.
Aimant profondment sa benjamine, elle a, en effet bien du mal faire face la situation entre le deuil de ses parents, la ncessit de travailler tout en grant les tches mnagres, la relation avec David son petit ami (un personnage au grand cњur et simple faire-valoir), la rbellion de sa petite sњur ou la peur des services sociaux. Essay. L’une de ses plus belles scnes est sa rconciliation avec Lilo aprs une nime dispute entre elles. Authority Control Names Thesis. La force de la relation qui les unit est alors exemplaire ! C’est d’ailleurs une projection-test qui est l’origine du rajout de cette squence : les ralisateurs s’tant aperus que le lien de famille entre Lilo et Nani n'tait alors pas bien compris par les spectateurs. Holiday Essay. En insistant dessus, ils ont donc non seulement consolid le rcit mais aussi livr un moment bouleversant. Stitch n’tant pas le seul risquer gros dans le film, Nani est, elle, surveille par l'assistant social Cobra Bubbles.
Ce dernier peut en effet lui faire perdre la garde de Lilo ; un nouveau coup dur pour la jeune fille aprs le dcs de ses parents. Control. Fonctionnaire impassible, au pragmatisme extrme et inbranlable, il semble dnu de toute propension la bienveillance, un sentiment d’ailleurs renforc par son costume la Men in holiday essay, Black ! Jumba, quant lui, est la premire menace de Stitch ! C’est en ralit son crateur, un scientifique extraterrestre givr, qui l’a originellement dnomm Exprience 626. Respect Essay. Condamn par la Prsidente du Grand Conseil rparer sa faute, le savant-fou doit donc montrer sa bonne volont en ramenant Stitch dans sa cellule haute-scurit. My Favorite. Il est aid dans sa tche par Pikly, un fonctionnaire choisi par la mme prsidente en sa qualit de spcialiste du moustique et de la protection de son habitat, la plante Terre. An Nco Essay. Cyclope de son tat, il s’vertue canaliser Jumba n’hsitant pas utiliser tous les stratagmes pour cela, y compris celui de se travestir.
L’autre menace - et en ralit la plus dangereuse pour Stitch – est le Capitaine Gantu missionn lui aussi par la Prsidente du Grand Conseil qui se dsole des pitres rsultats obtenus par Jumba et Pikly. My Favorite Essay. Militaire bte et mchant, ses mthodes sont pour le moins radicales. A l’image de sa galerie de personnages, l'animation ne souffre d'aucune critique : utilisant avec parcimonie les effets spciaux, elle prend, en effet, pour base des dcors peints l'aquarelle particulirement qualitatifs. World War 2. Choix de Chris Sanders ds ses travaux prparatoires sur le film, cette technique de peinture (utilise dans les tous premiers longs-mtrages Disney tels Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains, Pinocchio ou Dumbo) est idale pour capter les nuances et la douceur de l'univers d'Hawa, servant de dcors l’opus. My Favorite. Il s’agit l ainsi de son grand retour, aprs cinq dcennies de disette et sa disparition progressive au profit de la gouache et de la peinture l'huile. Dcidment bien loti ct scnario, casting et animation, Lilo Stitch ne pouvait tre en reste pour sa musique. Respect Essay. Destine soutenir le rythme endiabl du film, elle se devait ainsi d’tre la fois immersive et imaginative.
L’ide de gnie est vite trouve : elle consiste en un mlange harmonieux des chansons du King avec des airs et ambiances purement hawaens. My Favorite. Et c'est tout le film qui respire la nostalgie et l'exotisme ! Il y a d’ailleurs dans cette dmarche beaucoup de Chris Sanders : fan absolu d'Elvis Presley, il ne pouvait, pour lui, en tre autrement de Lilo. During War 2. Et le ralisateur parvient obtenir l'impossible. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Il russit dcrocher ce qu’aucun ralisateur n’a obtenu jusqu’alors : l’autorisation des ayants-droits du King ! Mieux encore, ces derniers lui accordent tout : utiliser ses morceaux bien sr mais aussi montrer la lgende, le citer, disserter sur lui, l'imiter, changer ses paroles et mme - privilge ultime - rarranger certains de ses morceaux ; le tout propos sur la bande originale du film, pourtant non distribue par le label exclusif d'Elvis Presley ! Et ce ne sont pas moins de cinq titres ( Stuck on supreme court, You , Suspicious Minds , Heartbreak Hotel , Devil in my favorite, Disguise et Hound Dog ) chants par la lgende qui sont utiliss dans l’opus, plus un sixime, Burning Love , repris par Wynonna. Authority Control Names. Viennent s’y rajouter deux autres chansons destines elles dvelopper le charme hawaen du film.
Les ralisateurs ont l'excellente ide de les commander un artiste autochtone, Mark Keali'I Ho'Omalu, aid dans sa tche par la chorale d'une cole locale, The Kamehameha Schools Children's Chorus. My Favorite. Il en rsulte deux des plus beaux airs du film, He Mele No Lilo et Hawaiian Rollercoaster Ride . An Nco. Et ce n’est pas tout : cette bande-son d’exception conclue par Can't Help Falling in essay, Love , la chanson du gnrique de fin interprte par les A*Teens et joliment place, est complte d’une musique instrumentale signe d'Alan Silvestri, papa des superbes airs de Retour vers le Futur ou de Qui Veut la Peau de Roger Rabbit, qui signe pour l’occasion des morceaux en adquation parfaite avec les images qu’ils soutiennent. Touche par la grce, la production de Lilo Stitch semble devoir ne rien voir lui rsister. Fake. C’est presque vrai sur toute sa dure sauf lorsque l’Histoire avec un grand H vient y mettre son grain de sel. My Favorite Essay. L’attaque terroriste du 11 septembre 2001 vient en effet bouleverser le monde : deux avions de ligne s’crasant contre les tours du World Trade Center, les faisant s’crouler sur elles-mmes et causant des milliers de morts.
Quel rapport avec Lilo Stitch ? C’est simple : la fin originellement imagine n’est plus tenable, 626 y tant cens s’emparer d’un boeing 747 dans sa poursuite de Gantu pour dlivrer Lilo. Is The Statement Sentence. L'avion devait ainsi voler en rase motte, zigzaguer entre les gratte-ciels de l'le et les frler de justesse. My Favorite Holiday Essay. La scne, compltement termine (anime et colorise) a t, en fait, ralise dans les toutes premires : une astuce des ralisateurs pour tre srs qu’elle ne serait pas coupe en cours de projet, au motif d’conomie budgtaire. Respect Essay. Elle est dsormais inutilisable en l’tat, la symbolique tant trop forte. My Favorite Holiday. Ils obtiennent donc le feu vert pour la remonter et la modifier ; la Direction des studios, - chose rare - ne voyant aucune objection aux cots supplmentaires dcoulant de cette dcision. Black In Pakistan. Le 747 est alors remplac par une navette spatiale et la poursuite a lieu dans les montagnes et au dessus de l’ocan et non en ville. L’autre priptie rencontre par Lilo Stitch rside dans l’approche marketing retenir pour le vendre au grand public.
Parler trop de son histoire est impossible sans dvoiler le tournant de personnalit que vivent les protagonistes tandis que prsenter ses personnages conduit la mme impasse. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Conscient du problme, les ralisateurs dcident bien vite de sortir des sentiers battus du marketing Disney et, au contraire, d’en jouer. In Pakistan. Ils ont ainsi l'excellente ide de prsenter Stitch comme le perturbateur de la galaxie disneyenne ; 626 s’invitant, pour ses bandes-annonces, dans les plus belles scnes des derniers Grands Classiques en date : La Petite Sirne, La Belle et la Bte, Aladdin et Le Roi Lion. Les critiques saluent, quant elles, l'originalit du film, son cynisme et son motion tandis que le public amricain ne se fait pas prier pour investir les salles. Holiday Essay. Avec prs de 145 millions de dollars de recettes, Lilo Stitch devient le plus gros succs de Walt Disney Animation Studios des annes 2000 ; seul Raiponce ayant fait mieux ! Joli pied de nez puisqu’il est l’origine un film B, un projet modeste ! En France, la donne n’est pas la mme.
Disney, soucieux de se prmunir des ravages du tlchargement et autres piratages, entreprend comme les autres majors amricaines, de dsormais rapprocher les sorties de ses films dans le monde des dates amricaines. Black Money In Pakistan. Disney France prsente donc le film dans l’hexagone l’entre de l’t 2002. Essay. Or, le public franais n’est pas encore (et pour cause) du tout habitu aller au cinma cette priode, tout occup qu’il est faire les soldes, prparer ses grandes vacances ou passer le bac. Names Thesis. Lilo Stitch flirte ainsi avec quelques 1,5 millions d'entres, un score piteux pour un Grand Classique Disney, mme si depuis, certains ont fait nettement pire. Chose notable, des deux cts de l'Atlantique, Lilo Stitch a acquis au fil du temps, le rang de film culte, Stitch tant notamment devenu un personnage extrmement populaire. Essay. Le marchandisage tourne plein et sans arrt depuis sa sortie, notamment les peluches qui s'arrachent, encore aujourd'hui dans les Disney Store et les resorts Disney. Is The Thesis Statement. Le film a droit galement une srie tl, Lilo Stitch - La Srie, un court-mtrage, Les Origines de Stitch, et trois suites, Lilo Stitch 2 : Hawa, Nous Avons un Problme !, Stitch ! - Le Film et Leroy Stitch, les deux derniers tant le pilote et la conclusion de la srie. My Favorite Holiday Essay. Exceptionnel aussi : Lilo Stitch dispose d’une srie dlocalise cre spcialement pour le march japonais, Stitch ! . Essay Fake. Enfin, et parmi toutes les sorties vido, l'dition collector double DVD doit tre salue tant elle propose assurment le meilleur making-of sur l'laboration d'un film d'animation Disney. My Favorite Essay. D'une dure de trois heures en comptant tous les modules, il dcortique tout le processus cratif d'un Grand Classique en rentrant dans le quotidien de ralisateurs assumant, qui plus est, leur tout premier long-mtrage ! Doux mlange des genres, entre exotisme, science-fiction, ralit sociale et humour grinant, le tout alli des personnages attachants et une musique envoutante, Lilo Stitch est le Grand Classique Disney le plus original et le plus dcal de toute la filmographie du studio. Is The Thesis The First. C’est d’autant plus remarquable que cet ovni (au sens propre comme au sens figur) a emport l’adhsion du grand public et le conserve depuis.
D’abord ambitieux, drle et mouvant, Lilo Stitch est donc, surtout et dsormais, culte : voir absolument ! • Les apparitions de Stitch dans les autres films Disney. • Les ralisateurs devant la camra. • Jeu, documentaire interactifs. • Prsentation et animation de la danse du Hula. • Commentaire audio de Dean DeBlois et Chris Sanders. • DisneyPdia : Hawaii - Les les de de l'Aloha.
- Cre ta propre exprience extraterrestre. - L'le aux aventures. • Les apparitions de Stitch dans les autres films Disney. • Doc : Leon de danse Hula. - Burning Love par Wynonna. - I Can't Help Falling In Love With You par A-Teens.
• Doc : L'animation de la danse Hula. - L'objection de Gantu. - Une histoire avant de dormir. - Le 747 (2 version) - Le procs de Stitch. - La mort prmature de Pudge le poisson. - Panique la plage. • Making of my favorite holiday interactif. • Les apparitions de Stitch dans les autres films Disney. • Les ralisateurs devant la camra.
• Jeu, documentaire interactifs. • Prsentation et animation de la danse du Hula. • Commentaire audio de Dean DeBlois et Chris Sanders. • DisneyPdia : Hawaii - Les les de de l'Aloha. - Cre ta propre exprience extraterrestre. - L'le aux aventures. • Les apparitions de Stitch dans les autres films Disney. • Doc : Leon de danse Hula. - Burning Love par Wynonna. - I Can't Help Falling In Love With You par A-Teens. • Doc : L'animation de la danse Hula.
- L'objection de Gantu. - Une histoire avant de dormir. - Le 747 (2 version) - Le procs de Stitch. - La mort prmature de Pudge le poisson. - Panique la plage. • Making of supreme court papers interactif.
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acedemic essay A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in my favorite recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only essay one marriage in ten ended in my favorite holiday divorce; nowadays the poverty essay fake, figure is my favorite holiday more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of respect an nco, sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.
It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in my favorite laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is sentence possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to holiday essay, pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Sentence In! Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in holiday divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is black that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the my favorite holiday essay, increased rate of an nco, divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes.
For example, Nicky Hart (cited in my favorite holiday essay Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the supreme, family. One example of my favorite holiday essay, these changes is the raised material aspirations of supreme, families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on my favorite holiday, both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for essay papers, example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working.
Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to my favorite, be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. During World Essay! (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in my favorite holiday this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of in pakistan, liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in holiday essay society. Indeed it would seem to names, be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic.
Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in my favorite Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in essay the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in essay the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. During World! Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for holiday essay, the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it.
Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in world war 2 a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is holiday assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in thesis the first in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and my favorite holiday M. Poole (eds).
Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995).
Sociology: Themes and respect an nco essay Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). My Favorite Essay! Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981).
The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Black Money! Family Matters . No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. My Favorite Holiday! (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions?
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My favorite holiday essays
Direct Seeding Literature Review Essay. The world’s total forest area is just over holiday essay 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an average of 0.6 ha per capita (Figure 1). The five most forest-rich countries (the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China) account for more than half of the total forest area. Deforestation – mainly the essay black, conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land – shows signs of decreasing in my favorite, several countries. Around 13 million hectares of forest were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year in the last decade. At a regional level, South America suffered the largest net loss of an nco essay forests between 2000 and my favorite holiday 2010 – about 4.0 million hectares per year – followed by Africa, which lost3.4 million hectares annually (Figure 5). Oceania also reported a net loss of forest (about 700 000 ha per year over the period 2000–2010), mainly due to supreme essay large losses of forests in Australia, where severe drought and forest fires have exacerbated the loss of forest since 2000. My Favorite? Asia, which had a net loss of forest of some 600 000 ha annually in the 1990s.
Need of world war 2 Forest Restoration: Within the last ten years, tropical rainforests have been destroyed at an annual rate of 0.8% of area (Whitemore, 1997). So this things brings to my favorite essay human being to think about the forest restoration. Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest” Various forest restoration methods have been developed, for instance, the accelerated natural regeneration ( ANR) (Jansen and control Pfeifer , 1989), The Framework Species method(Goosem Tucker, 1995) and holiday essay The Maximum Species Diversity method. The ANR method is Effective where natural regeneration is already underway. Eliminates nursery and tree planting costs. Relatively cheap – Capitalizes on “free” ecological services US$ 1,400/ha. The Framework Species method is suitable where native vegetation is close by. Its only need a single planting and court essay papers it is holiday essay, self sustaining.
In the Maximum Species Diversity method a large percentage of evacuation during world war 2 essay species are from the mature phase and my favorite holiday essay primary promoters are avoided. The major disadvantage of this method slower growth rate and post planting management is required. Now a days there is some evidence that , reforestation plays a key role in the long term of restoration of during world essay landscape functioning, as well as social and economic development. Reforestation can catalyses and induce succession of forest ecosystems using native species (Parrotta, 2000). Direct Seeding: An ancient method of essay establishing trees is by sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required.
In many circumstances, this method is superior to is the statement the first in the traditional method of essay planting nursery-raised plants. Poverty? In several tropical countries, the demand for reforestation is often not met due to limited resources. My Favorite? Supplementing traditional planting with direct seeding can enable these countries to increase reforestation. Direct seeding is essay black money, a regeneration method of sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required, whether it is for forest plantations, shelterbelts or in agroforestry. In this way the laborious task of raising nursery plants and transplanting them to the planting site is omitted. My Favorite Essay? Direct seeding offers various interesting possibilities e.g. the ability to authority control names thesis rapidly increase the my favorite holiday, area being forested or the essay in pakistan, ability to my favorite essay provide rural people with an inexpensive method to obtain benefits from trees. History of Direct Seeding: Direct seeding has over the last 50 years gained in supreme papers, importance, especially in North America and China where large areas have been direct seeded from helicopters or aero planes. Direct seeding from the air has been widely used in my favorite, China where more than 15 million ha have been reforested between 1956 and 1985 (Xinhua Jingchun, 1988). In the developed countries more than 1?2 million ha were reported to be direct seeded in 1974 or about 20 % of the area being planted (Appleroth, 1975).
Direct seeding in the tropics is less reported compared with the subtropics (Australia and USA) or the temperate regions (USA, Canada and Scandinavia). Trials have been carried out and reported from respect various tropical countries for my favorite holiday essay example Indonesia, Philippines, India, Central America, Northern Australia and court essay the Sahel in Africa. Direct seeding in the tropics has been carried out many times without the my favorite holiday, results ever being published. In the dry tropics traditional forestry is limited and control names thesis most trees are raised in connection with agriculture. Here, direct seeding already plays an important role, this could increase in the future by being implemented in afforestation and in holiday, establishment of poverty shelterbelts. In the humid tropics it appears that direct seeding is less common, probably due to many tree species having recalcitrant seeds and competition with weeds being fiercer. Nevertheless direct seeding has the ability to essay contribute significantly to tropical forestry in the future, probably not as the main regeneration method but as a method that under certain circumstances is superior to other methods. The following will describe various scenarios where direct seeding is employed in respect essay, the tropics. Advantages of Direct Seeding: Most forest restoration projects involve planting nursery raised tree seedlings,, but this is most labor and capital intensive method of forest restoration.
Seed collection, raising seedlings in a nursery, planting and maintaining planted saplings until they can establish and become independent all require substantial labor inputs (Hardwick et al., 2000). Furthermore root deformities caused by transplanting techniques can reduce sapling survival in the field ( Zangkum, 19980). The Potential advantages of direct seeding over other plantation establishment techniques include cost savings associated with nursery care and planting as well as the possibility that trees established by this means may develop more naturally or quickly, than would transplanted seedlings or cuttings( Engel Parrotta,2001). The Eden Project in Niger is recommending direct seeding as an appropriate method of establishing trees where water is holiday essay, scarce (Eden Foundation, 2000). It is essay, claimed that nursery plant use precious irrigation water, whereas direct seeding carried out prior to or during the rainy season does not need irrigation. They further maintain that plantation established by direct seeding tend to produce extensive root system, whereas the above ground shoots grow more slowly. In contrast seedlings in nurseries tend to produce large shoots and have to be irrigated or they they will suffer high mortality, whereas plants that established through direct seeding are more likely to be able to essay reach moisture remaining in the soil after rainy season.(Oschner,2001). This was quantified by Samba (1992) who sowed the seeds of thesis statement the first in Faidherbia albida at the same time as planting as planting nursery raised plants. Four months after sowing direct seeded plants were about twice as tall and had a mean dry root mass 25 times higher than that of the nursery raised plants.
The disadvantages of Direct Seeding: The significant disadvantages of direct seeding that can outweigh these advantages include low germination survival percentages, seedling mortality associated with weed competition and holiday also poor weather condition (Evans, 1982). Steven stated that the results of direct seeding are affected by a number of factors including species, soil conditions, site preparation and an nco techniques for my favorite seed germination. Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by animals also plays a key role in reducing seed germination. Direct Seeding in authority control, different purposes: Direct deeding can used for many purposes like for plantation, restoration, in mine spoils rehabilitation, in agro forestry. Negreros et al., 2003 worked in Mexico to restore the area by Mahogany seeds. Because this is very valuable for timber.
He found that Burying Mahogany seeds were clearly better than sowing them on the soil surface and my favorite holiday essay it yields double comapared to sowing method. For restoration purposes by direct seeding method, Tunjai and Elliott (2011) found that seed trait is supreme court essay, very important to achieve the goal of forest restoration by this method. They said Large or intermediate sized seeds, Round or oval seeds, Medium or low moisture content seeds showed good establishment when they sowed in the field for forest restoration purposes. For mine site rehabilitation Parrotta and Knowles(2001) found that In term of my favorite holiday species richness, densities and life span over 40 years Direct seeding got the most priority. They experimented with four forest restoration techniques and direct seeding showed the good result for rehabilitation mine site in Brazil. Factors effecting seed germination when applied by direct seeding: Seed germination is the activation of the metabolic machinery of the embryo, leading to the emergence of a new seedling ( Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995).
Seeds of in pakistan some species do not germinate due to hard seeed coats hindering intake of water ( Baskin Baskin, 1998). Seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve the seed coat permeability. For germination to be initiated three conditions must be fulfilled: first seeds must be viable that the embryo must be alive and essay capable of germination. Thesis? Second, the seed must be subjected to a proper environmental conditions, available water, proper temperatures, a supply of essay oxygen and sometimes light. Essay? Third dormancy must be overcome. ( Poulsen and my favorite Stubsgaard, 1995).However seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve seed coat permeability such as scarification, soaking in water or boiling in respect essay, hot water or hot sand.( Hardwick Elliott,1992). Problems with weeds: Studies conducted by my favorite essay Sun, Dickson and Bragg ( 1995) in Australia, found that the survival and early growth of poverty Alphitonia petriei through direct seeding are largely affected by weed competition and site conditions. The death of germinated seedlings, a few weeks after germination in essay, the plots where weeds remained undisturbed through out the experiment, was mot likely due to the effects of competition for light from the essay papers, existing weeds. Results from both the glasshouse and my favorite field experiments also indicate that weed compition severely limited the early growth of Alphitonia. Frequent weeding is is the the first in, necessary during the early growth phase.(Engel Parrotta 2001). Problems with predation:
Seed predation can be severe and holiday essay looses up to 100% have been reported. (Crawley, 1992). Seed predation has identified as one of the biotic barriers to natural forest regeneration in the abandoned Amazon pasture derived from supreme papers rainforest ( Nepstad et al., 1991). Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by holiday animals also play vital roles in reducing seed germination. However Crouch And Radwan (1975) recommending seed coating and pelleting against seed predators. But little is known about this technique in court essay papers, tropical situation. The study of Woods and Elliott (2004) was designed based on the premise that scarifying seeds before sowing them in the fields cleared of weeds would shorten seed dormancy to decrease the time available for seed predation to occur and that burial conceals seeds from potential predator. They found that ants were the only predator observed. Seeds buried or covered by mulch were better able to escape seed predation by ants or other types of predation. The results from Sun et al., 1995 showed that compacted and my favorite essay eroded soils are inhospitable to the establishment of A. petriei seedlings. So,at this point site preparation is necessary to overcome this problem. Points to during essay achieve succession of using direct seeding:
Sun et al.1995 conclude that weed control and maintenance of nutrient levels are essential for success. Engel and Parrotta (2001) suggested that what is my favorite holiday, required is a more systematic screening of potential species and their response to direct seeding under field conditions and evaluation of essay in pakistan coast associated with plantation establishment and aftercare. Seed quality is also other concern, using fresh seeds collected from several parent trees growing on sites where soil and climatic conditions are similar to those being reforested and my favorite planting should be carried on high rainfall. Woods and Elliott suggested that seeds should be sown in tha field immediately after fruit collection if possible. In order to minimize seed storage, species selected for dirct seeding should fruit at the beginning of the rainy season when direct seeding is most likely to be successful. Areas where direct Seeding could get an importence: Many tropical species have recalcitrant seeds, e.g. most trees in the dipterocarp family. This means that the seeds deteriorate rapidly after collection and can only be stored for a short period. If transport and temporary storage can be reduced to a minimum by processing the court essay papers, seedlot at the collection site before direct seeding the seeds at the planned site, the whole operation may be done in fewer days compared to a solution with a central processing centre and a nursery. This solution should result in a seedlot with better germination and possibly a higher overall percentage of essay established plants.
In areas with seasonal rains, recalcitrant seeds are adapted to ripen at the start of the rainy season and germinate soon after dispersal from the mother plant. Time for essay fake direct seeding will thus naturally be at holiday the beginning of the wet season, just after collection of the is the the first sentence, seeds, where the rains will provide a good start for the seedlings. In contrast, nursery stock has to be planted out my favorite holiday a year after seed collection at the onset of the next rainy season or alternatively at a time where drought can hinder the growth and survival of the seedlings. Many species will reach a fair size after a year in the nursery, resulting in more costly transport and planting of is the statement the first nursery stock compared to direct seeding. In Southeast Asia large areas of my favorite former rain forest lands have been turned into imperata (Imperata cylindrica) grassland, due to failure of fake reforestation. My Favorite Essay? In Indonesia alone the latest estimate of Imperata grasslands is 8,6 million ha (Garrity et al.
1997). In these areas it is difficult for trees to establish naturally due to annual fires. Direct seeding in black money, connection with constructing fire-belts could perhaps offer an alternative method to reforest these areas. In a trial in Jamaica a variety of trees was successfully established on grassland (Roshetko et al. 1991, 1991). It was concluded that trees can be established by direct seeding even with heavy grass competition, providing that monthly weeding is carried out until trees reach a competitive size. In a Nigerian trial Gliricidia sepium was both planted and my favorite holiday essay direct seeded in control names thesis, Panicum maximum pastures after mechanical seedbed preparation (Cobbina 1994).
Although planting showed better results, direct seeding could still offer a worthwhile alternative if expenses are taken into account. In order to compete with the imperata grass it would be sensible to start the reforestation with fast growing exotic tree species for example Acacia spp., Leucaena, Cajanus cajan or Sesbania spp. In order to obtain more valuable forest products planting or direct seeding of my favorite holiday essay native primary forest species such as dipterocarps could be carried out at a later stage when the evacuation world war 2, grasses have been outcompeted. Otsamo (2000) reported that native trees can be establish in the understorey of fast growing plantation species; he found 63 tree species in plantations on Borneo, which was established on former Imperata grasslands. Costs and benefits:
Angel and Parrotta (2001) reported that the establishment and maintenance cost of direct seeding of five species in Brazil during the 2 years study period averaged 747-912 US $ per hectare. This cost compare favorably with those for plantation establishment and maintenance at this site using nursery grown seedlings of native tree species in essay, other plantation treatments include in same project , which averaged1200- 1500 US $.(Unpublished data).Therefore direct seeding in this project can reduce about 63% compared with the plantation using nursery grown seedlings. Appelroth, S.E. Supreme Court Essay? (1975). Work study aspects of my favorite holiday planting and direct seeding in. forestry.
In Symposium Stand Establishment; Proceedings, p. Essay Black? 202-269. Engel, V. L. and J. Parrotta, 2001. An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in essay, central Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Forest Ecology an Management 152:169-181. Garwood, N.C.1989. Tropical soil seed banks. In: M.A. Leck, V.T. Parker and R.L. Simpson (Eds.).
Ecology of soil seed banks. Essay Money? Academic press Newyork, 149-210. Goosem, S. and N.I.I. Tucker.1995. Repairing the my favorite holiday essay, rainforest. Theory and practice of rainforest re establishment. Wet tropics management authority. Cairns, Queensland, Australia.72 pp.
Hardwick K (1999) Tree colonization of abandoned agricultural clearings in seasonal tropical montane forest in nothern Thailand. In, vol. Poverty Fake? Doctor of Philosophy. My Favorite Essay? University of fake Wales, Bangor,p 168. Jansen, C.L. and S. Pfeifer.1989. Assisted natural regeneration: a new reforestation approach. USAID report prepared for the development of environment and natural resources. Government of the Philippines 22pp. Negreros CP, Hall RB (1996) First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. My Favorite Holiday Essay? Journal of Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Negreros, C. P. and R. B. Hall, 1996.
First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Oschner, P. 2001. Direct seeding in the tropics. IUFRO Joint symposium on poverty, tree seed technology. Physiology and tropical Silviculture, College of forestry Natural Resources, University of the Philippines, Los banos. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon.
Ecological Engineering 17:219-239 Tunjai P (2011) Direct seeding for restoring tropical lowland forest ecosystems in southern Thailand. In, vol. Doctor of Philosophy. My Favorite? Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, p 192 Woods K, Elliott S (2004) Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in black money in pakistan, northern Thailand. Whitmore, T. My Favorite Holiday Essay? C. Poverty Fake? 1997. Tropical rainforest disturbance disapperance and species loss.In: W.F. Laurance And R.O. bierregaard Jr. (eds.0 . Tropical forest remmnants:Ecology management and Conservation of fragmant. communities.(pp.3-12). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16:248-259.
Xinhua, C. and Z. Jingchun. 1988. Holiday? Sowing from the air: China’s experience. Tigerpaper vol. XV: No. 1. World War 2 Essay? FAO forest news. Zangkum, S. 1998.
Growing tree seedlings to restore forests: effects of container type and media on seedling growth and morphology. MSc thesis, Chiang Mai Univerity, Chiang Mai. University/College: University of my favorite holiday Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Direct Seeding Literature Review.
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Тема "Мой любимый праздник" (My favourite holiday) - Английский
Examining the Rna Interference Mechanism Essay Sample. RNA interference, or RNAi, is a biological process in which RNA molecules reduce the gene expression of an organism. This is done typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. RNAs are direct products of genes, these small RNAs can bind to other mRNA molecules to either increase or decrease their activity like in the example of preventing an mRNA from producing a protein. There are two types of my favorite holiday, RNA molecules that are central to RNAi, these molecules are, micro RNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The RNAi mechanism is found in many different eukaryotes and it is started by poverty essay fake an enzyme names Dicer. Dicer is an endoribonuclease that cleaves double stranded RNA into short double stranded RNA fragments, which are the siRNA. Each of these new siRNAs are then unwound into two different single stranded ssRNAs.
One of the strands is depleted and then the other is involved in my favorite holiday the RNA induced silencing complex. RNAi is a very valuable in research. This is names thesis, because double stranded RNAs that are introduced into my favorite, the cell can induce suppression of some specific genes of poverty fake, interest. Holiday Essay? Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello’s work on RNAi in C. Elegans revolutionized RNAi, and because of it the usefulness of it has increased substantially. RNAi can be easily introduced into the C. Elegans through feeding; feeding the worms the bacteria that expresses double stranded RNA that corresponds to the gene that is being targeted can do this. In this experiment, to introduce the C. Elegans to the RNAi, the poverty essay fake, worms were first transferred to a plate containing the IPTG. My Favorite Holiday Essay? From there, they were able to grow on the plate for a lengthy enough amount of time. Once they grew on the plates, a microscope was used, specifically; a binocular dissection microscope was used to get familiar with the appearance and behavior of the worms.
Determination of whether or not the authority names thesis, RNAi was successfully induced in my favorite the worms needs to be done next. To do so, the DNA was isolated and then amplified and court essay, then the dpy-13 was amplified by the PCR. Once the DNA was amplified, it was analyzed by gel electrophoresis. If the RNAi was successfully introduced into the organism then the gene sequence will have been un-altered. The only thing that should differ in the C. Elegans strain that should differ once the RNAi is introduced is the phenotype. The reason for this is that RNAi only my favorite essay, modifies mRNA, and mRNA is a direct product of the gene of the authority control thesis, organism.
Materials and Methods: To begin this experiment, first a proper introduction to the material is holiday, necessary. This is started with a few online websites that are selected for the lab partners to visit and research. Research about RNAi is done on the website www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/rnai-cure.html as well as a little research done on Wikipedia. Research about C. Elegans is done on court essay, the websites http://avery.rutgers.edu/WSSP/StudentScholars/project/introduction/worms.html, and http://www.sanger.ac.uk/research/projects/caenorhabditisgenomics/. The website http://www.silencinggenomes.org/ is also used to research the mechanisms and background of RNAi.
In order to make sure that research is done properly, a worksheet is my favorite, handed out to the class by the first the professor to direct the lab through the website and ask certain questions to promote the learning that is necessary to continue on with the lab. In part 1 of the experiment we are transferring wild type and dpy-13 C. Elegans to OP50 seeded NGM0lite plates. To do so, a Wild-Type C. My Favorite? Elegans and a dpy-13 mutant are obtained as well as two OP50 seeded plates. The OP50 seeded plates each are labeled either “Wild-Type” or “dpy-13” and dated. In order to control, sterilize a metal spatula, it is dipped into ethanol and then briefly passed through a Bunsen flame to holiday, ignite the alcohol. Once the alcohol is burned off the metal spatula should be sterile.
Once the spatula is sterile, it is to be used to cut a 1-cm square of agar with worms from the wild type starter plate and transfer the chunk to the OP50 seeded plate that is poverty, labeled “wild type”, face down. This same procedure is repeated to transfer worms from the dpy-13 starter plate to the OP50 seeded plate labeled “dpy-13”. Holiday Essay? These plates are then both incubated upside down at 20?C for 48 hours. Evacuation During War 2 Essay? This incubation gives the worms time to grow in their new environment. In part 2 of the experiment we are inducing RNAi through the my favorite, process of feeding.
To do so, a black pen is used to label the bottom of an OP50 seeded plate with the date and “wild type”. Another OP50 seeded plate is labeled with the date and “dpy-13”. A black pen is essay in pakistan, then used to label the bottom of the plate seeded with dpy-13 RNAi feeding strain with the date and “wild type”. Five L4-stage worms from the plate of wild type worms are then picked and moved to the OP50 seeded plate labeled “wild type”. My Favorite? Any eggs or young larvae that may have been accidentally transferred are to be picked off of the essay papers, plate and my favorite holiday essay, then flamed in a Bunsen burner. Essay? The same method is used to move five L4 wild type worms to the plate seeded with the dpy-13 RNAi feeding strain, and once again to move five L4 dpy-13 worms to the OP50 seeded plate labeled “dpy-13”. Holiday? These plates are then incubated upside down at 20?C. Part 3 of black money, this experiment calls to isolate the DNA from C. Elegans. To do so, we start by labeling three PCR tubes with the group number. One of the tubes is labeled “W” for wild type, one is labeled “R” for RNAi, and one is labeled “D” for deletion mutant. Essay? Once they are labeled a micropipette, with a fresh tip each time, is used to is the thesis statement sentence, add 10µL of lysis buffer to each of the tubes.
Observations of the wild type, dpy-13 and dpy-13 RNAi treated wild type worms under a dissecting microscope are necessary. Make sure to carefully note the differences in the length and width of the worms. Then, using a sterile toothpick, transfer four or five adult wild type worms to the tube labeled “W”. The PCR tube should also be looked at under the microscope in order to make sure that at least three worms are alive in the buffer. Then you are to pick four or five dpy-13 RNAi treated wild type worms and move them to the “R” tube, verifying that at least three worms are alive. Then you are to my favorite holiday essay, pick four or five dpy-13 worms to the “D” tube, verifying that at least three live worms exist.
The PCR tubes are then fit into one or two adaptors. The PCR tubes are “nested” into larger adaptors: a 0.2 mL tube, within a 0.5 mL tube within a 1.5 mL tube. An Nco? The tubes then should be placed in a balanced configuration in a microcentrifuge and spun for 5-10 seconds at full speed. This process will pellet the worms. The tubes are then to be placed in a freezer until the liquid in holiday essay the tubes is frozen solid. The freeze/thawing cracks the tough outer cuticle of the respect essay, worm. The PCR tubes are then to be placed in my favorite essay a thermal cycler that has been programmed for one cycle that has been programmed for one cycle. The cycle should contain an essay in pakistan incubation step that is at 65?C for 90 minutes followed by my favorite essay a boiling step at 95?C for 15 minutes. The sample should be stored on ice or at -20?C until the next step of the supreme papers, experiment is ready to be performed. In part 4 of the experiment you are to my favorite holiday, amplify the DNA through PCR. This is done by first, obtaining three tubes containing Ready-To-Go™ PCR beads.
Each tube should be labeled with the group number. One tube should be labeled “W” for wild type, one should be labeled “R” for RNAi and one should be labeled “D” for deletion mutant. A micropipette is then used, with a fresh tip each time, to add 2.5µL of worm DNA from part 3 to the appropriate tubes. The DNA should be added directly into primer/loading dye mix, no worm DNA remains should be in the tip after pipetting and a fresh tip should be used for court essay, each reaction. The next step is the thermal cycler, which should contain the cycles or a denaturing step at 94?C for my favorite holiday, 30 seconds, an annealing step at 55?C for 60 seconds, and an extension step at 72?C for 60 seconds. After the cycling the amplified DNA should be stored on ice or at -20?C until part 4 of the experiment is ready to be begun. Part 4 of the authority control names thesis, experiment is to holiday essay, analyze the PCR products using the process of gel electrophoresis.
A gel is provided in the lab to be used. Using a micropipette add, with a fresh tip each time, 20µL of pBR322/BstNI size marker into the far left lane of the gel. Using a micropipette, with a fresh tip each times, add 20µL of evacuation world war 2 essay, each sample/loading dye mixture into essay, a different lane of the gel, the marker being in well “1”, wild type should be put in well “2”, RNAi treated dpy-13 in “3” and Deletion dpy-13 mutant in “4”. The gel is to respect an nco essay, be run at my favorite holiday essay, 130V for approximately 30 minutes. The gel is then to control, be stained in ethidium bromide. Following the wet lab portion of the experiment, bioinformatics techniques were performed to receive further knowledge on the subject of RNAi and its mechanism. A BLAST search was initiated through the NCBI website, specifically a nucleotide blast or blastn. The primers’ sequences that were used in the lab were searched in the blastn program. The blastn sequence was first optimized for similar sequences and my favorite, then the sequence was then analyzed using the program.
Once the BLAST was performed, the hits that were returned to us by the BLAST program were then also analyzed. A search of the essay money in pakistan, dpy-13 amplicon was done the same way as the previous search. However, this time, a megablast is performed. The dpy-13 amplicon was also analyzed. Observations of the Wild Type and dpy-13 mutant strain of the C. My Favorite Holiday? Elegans worms:
For the wild type worm they seemed to have longer, and more slender bodies. Also, they had much faster movement on the plate. They seemed to have an easier time moving around on the plate. For the dpy-13 mutant plate they seemed to have a shorter, fatter body. Also, their movement was much slower. Respect? Not nearly as fast moving as the wild type worm. When the worms were treated with the RNAi they also had shorter, fatter bodies and were not as active and holiday essay, slower moving.
The table below shows pictures of each of the types of worms taken through a microscope and cropped at the same size: Wild Typedpy-13dpy-13 RNAi treated. The sample below of the gel electrophoresis was taken from the book: The first well on the left being the marker, next the wild type, then the RNA treated dpy-13, then a dpy-13 deletion mutant, then ladder. The sample below of gel electrophoresis is the gel electrophoresis that was performed from the samples from the experiment: The marker being is the first well on essay, the left, next being the wild type worm, and then the RNAi treated wild type, and last the dpy-13 deletion mutant. Discussion and Conclusion: After observing the dpy-13, wild type, and holiday essay, the RNAi treated C. Elegans, we were able to see that there was a difference in the physical structure as well as the authority names thesis, behavioral aspects of the worms. Because the dpy-13 worms had their outer cuticle treated affected by a genomic mutation, the worms were shorter and fatter than the my favorite essay, wild type worms. Also, the money, dpy-13 worms moved much slower than the wild type worms. The RNAi treated worms also showed similar characteristics to my favorite essay, that of the dpy-13 worms.
We were able to determine the physical and behavioral characteristics by essay black simply observing the worms through a microscope, however, to determine the genotypic differences we were required to isolate the holiday essay, DNA from each sample. We were able to isolate the DNA by performing a PCR reaction. Evacuation? From the PCR reaction we were able to perform a gel electrophoresis. Unfortunately, the gel electrophoresis did not produce data sufficient enough to determine any results. The reasons for this could range from damage during transfer, an error during the PCR reaction, or even an error that could have occurred during the storing of the my favorite, worms. Since the is the thesis statement sentence, electrophoresis did not suffice as useable data, we were forced to observe the sample gel electrophoresis results that were provided to the lab in the lab manual. The wild type worms, as well as the RNAi treated worms both contained similar DNA, around 1000 base pairs long. On the other hand, the my favorite essay, dpy-13 worms contained DNA that was roughly 350 base pairs long.
From these observations of the gel electrophoresis results we were able to conclude that even though the world war 2, wild type and the RNAi treated worms contained the same DNA composition, because the RNAi mechanism resulted in a difference in the phenotype of the worm that resembled the dpy-13 worms, the results support that the RNAi treated worms went through a type of post-transcriptional modification, specifically, post-transcriptional gene silencing that most likely silenced the same gene that the dpy-13 mutant deleted. There are possibilities of future experiments that can be conducted. Holiday Essay? Since we were able to see clearly that RNAi modification affects the wild type of an organism post-transcriptionally through gene silencing, a future experiment should be conducted in order to further study the role that mRNA plays. Reverse transcriptase is used to respect, produce RNA from DNA. To isolate the my favorite holiday, RNA that is used, a PCR reaction can be done in order to isolate the specific mRNA. Respect An Nco? The reverse transcriptase would produce an mRNA strand and the cDNA strand. If RNase is added to the solution, the mRNA can be broken down. My Favorite? From there, a DNA polymerase, dNTP’s and a primer are used to evacuation essay, produce new copy strands of the holiday essay, cDNA already present and then the total RNA can be isolated.
I would like to acknowledge my lab partners Josephine Liu, Bourtai Gold and black, Jessica Gately for my favorite holiday, their outstanding help with the RNAi experiment a long with all other previous experiment performed this semester. “Caenorhabditis Genome Sequencing and Analysis at the Sanger Institute.” Caenorhabditis Genomics. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. “Introduction to C. Elegans.” Introduction to C. Authority? Elegans.
N.p., n.d. My Favorite Essay? Web. 05 Dec. 2012. Lewis, Susan K. “The RNAi Cure.” PBS. PBS, 01 July 2005. Court Papers? Web. 05 Dec. 2012. Pierce, Benjamin A. My Favorite Holiday Essay? Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012.
Print. “Silencing Genomes.” Silencing Genomes. DNA Learning Center, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2012. . Is this the respect an nco essay, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Examining the Rna Interference Mechanism. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Examining the Rna Interference Mechanism. In an article titled “Researchers Silence HIV in Mice Engineered to Be Like Humans” from Scientific American, Nikhil Swaminathan talks about a new potential remedy for HIV. Researchers from the…
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